When Two Calendars Collide
1844 New Moon and Sabbath Paradox
This article identifies the paradox of what occurs when two polar opposite calendars collide. The Seventh-day Adventist Church will be highlighted in this example, as they keep a Roman Calendar Saturday as their Sabbath in one hand, yet in the other, a lunisolar calendar for their October 22, 1844, Day of Atonement Feast Day event.
It goes undisputed, that there are many good and courageous men and women of all ages, past and present, who have held sincerely to doctrines and beliefs that have later proved to be in error. One modern example of this is the pioneers of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. From those early days until now, most Seventh-day Adventists, are quick to dismiss the relevance of the moon for measuring time and marking important Scriptural events as they cling to the early leaders and foundation doctrines.
- Might there simply be a lack of knowledge on the part of Adventists as to the Hebrew calendar, as outlined in Scripture and utilized exclusively by all the patriarchs and prophets of old, and highlighted by the crucifixion of our Messiah at the precise appointed time?
- Or perhaps this is a case of memory lapse with regard to the Adventist beginnings in the Millerite movement that began with the lunar date of the Karaite Jewish seventh month. It was upon this luni-solar calendar that the Millerites found Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) of the Hebrew seventh month, which correlates to the Roman Gregorian tenth month of October 22, in the year 1844? Strikingly, this belief now puts the spotlight on the S.D.A. Church as it creates a paradox between two uniquely opposing calendar models.
- Understandably so, it is difficult for Adventists to even consider an astro-luni-solar calendar model that portrays a differing weekly seventh-day Sabbath cycle, and still remain in harmony with their church teachings and beloved prophetess, Ellen White. For according to her writings, she only placed her seal of approval upon a Saturday Sabbath, the seventh-day of a Roman calendar cycling week. Adventist’s believe that to even open their minds to the possibility of the opposing New Moon calendar places their eternal reward in jeopardy.
This is because their current perception is so dependent upon a Saturday Sabbath solution to the perceived coming Sunday Law, which they believe to be the Mark of the Beast. And to question on any level this established belief, undermines the authority and even dethrones their prophet. In truth, the Mark of the Beast includes a false day of worship, but the reality is that the entire Hebrew astro-luni-solar calendar given at creation has been taken hostage and replaced. Yahuah is calling His conscientious followers to rub their blinded eyes, wake-up, stand-up, and let the TRUTH be proclaimed throughout the earth.
These three examples must be factored-in to the question of “what is the true calendar” for all those who seek an eternal home with their Creator? For the honest of heart, these questions can no longer be ignored! Some may even wonder why or how it could matter. But the simple truth is that all time prophecies are based upon the same original astro-luni-solar time model of Creation including the 2,300 day/year prophecy, and not the Roman, Babylonian, Egyptian, Chinese, or Mayan calendars. When our Creator gave us His divine Sabbath rhythm in which to worship, it ruled out all future man-made and witty time inventions that men could muster in their fantastic imaginations.
If truth be told, in comparison to the 150 times the Sabbath is referred to in Scripture, the New Moon is mentioned over 300 times, twice the number of Sabbaths, giving mankind some idea as to its great value by our Creator and its importance for His true followers. But then most christian churches, including the Adventists are taught that all references to the moon were done away with at the cross and are no longer relevant.
Statement of the Biblical Research Institute of the Seventh-day Adventist Church
You may be interested in the admission of Angel Rodriguez, former head of the Biblical Research Institute of the Seventh-day Adventist Church:
“The Israelite calendar was lunisolar, that is to say, time was measured on the basis of the new moon [the rotation of the moon around the earth] and also the sun [the rotation of the earth around the sun]. A lunar calendar of 12 months is about 11 days shorter than the solar calendar, which is approximately 365 days. In the ancient world this was solved by adding an extra month seven times in 19 years. In the Bible the moon calendar was used to fix the time for the festivals, for instance, 14 days after the new moon came Passover (Numbers. 28:16).” Angel Rodriguez, Biblical Research Institute of the Seventh-day Adventist Church
Not for a moment does Pastor Angel Rodriguez follow a lunar Sabbath today, but here he admits the Israelite calendar, as given by the Creator, was based upon the time-measuring movements of the moon and sun. This alone should stimulate questions as to why all the churches who utilize the Scripture as their authority, including the Adventist Church, have abandoned this foundational truth. One must ask, “Who is behind this abandonment of the sacred time system that was instituted by our Creator, when at the very hour the details are being fulfilled in the shamayim Sanctuary above by our Messiah in real time?”
Contentedly, Adventists ignore the astro-lunar-solar facts in Scripture that gave birth to their most central and cherished foundational doctrine relating to the autumn of 1844, maintained to this day. Yet, how is this possible when that same lunar event currently stands in conspicuous opposition to their other most beloved doctrinal pillar of Adventism. This being the “Saturday Sabbath” belief, which is the seventh-day of the Roman calendar. Strikingly, to top it off, the Seventh-day Adventist Church conscientiously identifies Roman Catholicism as the Beast Power of Revelation, yet all the while they religiously mark time to the rhythm of her uniquely handcrafted calendar and continue to keep Roman holidays as her festival days. Might the saying fit, “When in Rome . . .”
The Ancient Hebrew Calendar Changed by the Jews
Under intense persecution, Hillel II, head of the Sanhedrin, in A.D. 358, set forth for his fellow Jews, and for all time to come, a new calendar model that was devised to end the persecution from the Romans. His time mechanism afforded the dark moon as the New Moon in one hand, and in the other adopted Rome’s seven day planetary week. Like oil and water the New Moon calendar and the cycling planetary weeks cannot be synchronized, disallowing an accurate protocol for keeping the qadosh Feast Days of Scripture without egregious conflicts. As a result, it was found that a intermediary tool was necessary to harmonize the two calendar models, however imperfect it continues to be. This tool created in the fourth century is referred to as the Nineteen Rules of Postponement. You will not find this tool mentioned in Scripture, which speaks volumes as to why it was intrinsically essential at this late date in the Fourth Century A.D. For the necessity of a tool of this caliber, meant only one thing– that the original Hebrew astro-luni-solar calendar and its lunar Sabbath was indeed changed by the Jews in compliance with Rome. For this tool never existed prior to that year, nor was it ever necessary until that calendar change.
In the Diaspora the New Moon came to occupy a secondary position in contrast to the Sabbath; the prohibition against work and the carrying on of commerce was lifted, and the New Moon, although still celebrated by means of increased offerings, soon was reduced to the rank of a minor or half-holiday. Its importance was confined to the fact that it remained of great value and necessity for the fixing of the festivals. Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, “New Moon,” Vol. 8, p. 171.
Maimonides and most other Jewish chronologers agree that the modern Jewish calendar is based upon the “mean motions of the sun and moon, the true having been set aside.” Maimonides, Kiddusch Ha-hodesch, Tr. Mahler, Wein, 1889.
Intercalations [of the calendar] were determined at meetings of a special commission of the Sanhedrin. But Constantius, following the tyrannous precedents of Hadrian, prohibited the holding of such meetings . . . How difficult the fixing of the annual calendar consequently became may be judged from an enigmatic letter addressed to Raba . . . and preserved in the Talmud . . . . Almost the whole Diaspora depended for the legal observance of the feasts and fasts upon the calendar sanctioned by the Judea Sanhedrin; yet danger threatened the participants in that sanction and the messengers who communicated their decisions to distant congregations. . . . As the religious persecutions continued, Hillel II determined to provide an authorized calendar for all time to come, though by so doing he severed the ties which united the Jews of the Diaspora to their mother country and to the patriarchate. I. Singer and S. Mendelsohn, “Hillel II,” www.JewishEncyclopedia.com.
“The arrangement of the Jewish calendar as used in the time of Christ [the Messiah] is no longer operative. Modern Jews are divided into two classes. The Karaite Jews, whose numbers are small, reject tradition and the Talmud, observe their feasts and festivals more nearly with those of Christ’s time as regards the true season. The larger number of Jews follow the Rabbinical Calendar, the product of Rabbi Hillel II and others about 353 A.D. These incorporated into it many of the ancient rules of calculation, but begin their year, and feasts and festivals a month earlier in the season than the Karaites. We have in 1844 the atonement by the Rabbinical Calendar would be September 23rd, while by the Karaites it was about that time in October. By the Rabbinical calendar the First day of Nisan is always between March 12 and April 11, and is always one of four days, Sunday, Tuesday, Thursday or Saturday the first one after the new moon for that month.” Creation Centered in Christ, by H.G. Guinness, D.D., page 276. Also from Approximate Chronology, H. H. Perry, p. 21-22. [Note that both calendar styles came into existence following Hillel II, and were not the calendar of Scripture or utilized at the time of our Messiah.]
Adventist Calendar Options for Continuity
This leaves the Seventh-day Adventists with several options:
- Keep New Moon Day and count to the 10th day of the seventh lunar month to mark the Day of Atonement, as utilized by the Millerites in 1844, without regard to how it affects Sabbath-keeping. (The New Moon is always kept according to the lunar calendar and always conflicts with the Roman Gregorian Calendar, whether one keeps as their worship day, Friday, Saturday or Sunday. In the Millerite days, Sunday was the standard worship day, although the Seventh-day Baptist congregation did exist at that time.)
- Keep a Roman calendar seventh-day Sabbath only and ignore that October 22 in 1844 was based only upon the lunar calendar model and remain in denial that they adhere to two opposing calendar models that cannot be harmonized. (This has been their traditional position, yet now they are left with conflicting doctrines published in their 28 Beliefs.)
- Keep both the seventh-day Sabbath of the Roman Gregorian Calendar and the New Moon of the Jews so as to keep the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) and all of Yahuah’s qadosh Feast Days. Yet, as with the modern Jews, since the time of Hillel II in A.D. 358, the Adventists would be unable to synchronize the Day of Atonement of 1844 with their Saturday Sabbath without the use of an intermediate tool, as the Jews have done. This unrecognized glitch in their 28 Beliefs is now exposed whether they want to recognize it or not. Might this be why they have sorely rejected the overt keeping of the Feast Days of Scripture, because they can never be harmonized with their Roman Saturday Sabbath, without resorting to utilizing 19 Rules of Postponement, as did the Jews. This can best be described as having each foot on a different ship going in opposite directions?
- In my experience, Adventists feel that anything that calls into question an error in either Saturday Sabbath reckoning or the lunar date of October 22, 1844, when their prophet identified them both as empirical truths, must be wrong on all levels. Resulting, in an unwillingness to consider any relevant evidence. This is crippling at best as the ultimate goal is TRUTH that we may study to show ourselves approved unto Yahuah.
Might the unspoken reality here for Seventh-day Adventists be that if either Saturday or October 22, 1844, or both, are shown to be in error, then their perceived prophet’s validity is irreparably damaged. Yet, isn’t finding the truth supremely more important than discovering their perceived prophet to be a fraud, and that they’ve been wrong? For someone once said, “Every passing minute is another chance to turn it all around.” One can only wonder who is worshiped, Ellen White, or the Creator Yahuah Elohim?
No more than Martin Luther was able to turn the tide of the Roman Catholic Church doctrines with his famous Ninety-five Thesis, will this website bring a desired change to the Seventh-day Adventist Church Corporation and their 28 Beliefs, or even the Sunday keeping churches. Why, because in both cases, to admit error on foundational principles is to dethrone their Pope or Prophet from his or her position of absolute sway. The Ninety-five Thesis that birthed the reformation in the day of Martin Luther, did not change the church, rather it served to ignite a movement of reform. Many individuals awoke to the message of truth and came out. This gives us hope, as it is the objective of this short article to expose error and reveal staggering truths in order to change hearts and lives one reader at a time.
Does the S.D.A. Calendar Paradox Require the Nineteen Rules of Postponement?
A little background may be necessary to illustrate the calendar paradox. It is in Leviticus 23:27 where the placement of Day of Atonement is given as the tenth day of the seventh lunar month. (You will not find the word “lunar” in the English translation, but you can look it up in both the Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew Lexicon, or Strong’s Concordance.) This tenth day, as counted from the seventh New Moon is the date for Day of Atonement according to Leviticus 23, to infinity and beyond (This website does challenge this date, but that is another subject altogether. Refer to article, Feast Days of Yahuah). Thus it will never change its placement from year to year, but will always remain according to the WORD of our Eternal Father, whether mankind adheres to it or not.
And Yahuah spoke to Moshe, saying: “Also the tenth day of this seventh lunar month shall be the Day of Atonement. It shall be a qadosh (holy) convocation for you; you shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire to Yahuah. . .” Leviticus 23:26-27
Next let us include the details that occur just five days later. Also, in Leviticus 23, in verse 33-36 we find the seven-day Feast begins on the 15th day as counted from the seventh New Moon, and continues thru the 21st day, a seven day period. If you are wondering which days of this Feast are seventh-day Sabbaths, it tells us. There are two qadosh (holy) convocations connected to this Feast, which are identified in Leviticus 23:3-4 as Sabbaths. The first seventh-day Sabbath occurs on the first day of this seven-day Feast, and the second one occurs on the day after the seven day feast, referred to here as the eighth day.
Then Yahuah spoke to Moshe, saying, “Speak to the children of Israel, saying: ‘The fifteenth day of this seventh lunar month shall be the Feast of Tabernacles for seven days to Yahuah. On the first day there shall be a holy convocation. You shall do no customary work on it. For seven days you shall offer an offering made by fire to Yahuah. On the eighth day you shall have a holy convocation, and you shall offer an offering made by fire to Yahuah. It is a qadosh (sacred) assembly, and you shall do no customary work on it. Leviticus 23:33-36
The week days of the ancient Hebrew calendar were numbered from 1-7, with the seventh-day as the Sabbath. Also, the days of their lunar month were numbered as they were demarcated by the ever changing lunar phases from 1-29 or 30. Strikingly, because the New Moon is a worship day and day one of the month, it causes the first day of the week to commence upon the second day of the lunar month. This is why the weekly seventh-day Sabbath consistently falls upon the 8th day of the lunar month, as well as the 15th, 22nd, and 29th days consistently. Each new month and count is refreshed and begins again with the full New Moon.
So following this model, it is because the Feast of Tabernacles commences on a qadosh (holy) convocation, otherwise known as the seventh-day Sabbath, that the Day of Atonement always occurs five days earlier on the 10th day of the month, but also on the second day of the week. It is this illustration and so many more that identify the Sabbath of the ancient Hebrews was consistently counted from the New Moons. More examples. To emphasize this fact, that the seventh-day Sabbath was indeed the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles every year, the verse goes on to say that there was also to be a qadosh (holy) convocation, seventh-day Sabbath on the eighth-day, which was the 22nd of the month. By placing these qadosh (holy) convocations on the dates of the 15th and 22nd, we are able to complete the layout for the whole month.
Notice in the calendar example below that the first day of the month is the New Moon day. And following this and directly under it are the four seventh-day Sabbaths, occurring on the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th of every single lunar month of the year. So it is that when every year comes around, the Day of Atonement and Feast of Tabernacles are continually placed as a GPS with three binding laws that nail it in place so it cannot be moved: 1) The consistent Feast day event as it relates to the date of the lunar month; and 2) The consistent Feast day event as it relates to the seventh-day Sabbaths; 3) The seventh-day Sabbath as it consistently relates to the New Moon and lunar month dates. Thus, the timing of the event, the lunar month date, and the seventh-day Sabbaths can never be broken, moved or skewed. As a result, to honor or keep either a Feast day or the seventh-day Sabbath as they were ordained, the calendar system that binds them must be utilized. The Roman Gregorian calendar system never has three months in a row that are identical, and for this reason is disqualified. Right about now your honest heart may be feeling alarmed by your findings. For I too, along with ALL THE WORLD once followed after the Beast of Revelation via her power mongering calendar. Please do not continue forward, until you fully understand the gravity of this section.
Compare the above New Moon calendar model to the Roman Gregorian calendar at your home.
As the Jews discovered in the fourth century A.D., it is an impossible task to try to keep any of the Feast Days by utilizing only the Roman calendar, as the moon was dismissed from her calendar as early as 45 B.C. for the purpose of creating a new stylized calendar. For Seventh-day Adventists to cling to a Saturday Sabbath on the Roman calendar in one hand, and the anti-typical Day of Atonement of 1844, based entirely upon the lunisolar calendar, in the other, of necessity requires a harmonizing document, as the Jews have done. Yet, the Nineteen Rules of Postponement, however convenient to the Jews, still remains hopelessly flawed. For it has proven out that ever since the fourth century A.D., when using the Roman calendar as the calendar standard, the New Moon perpetually floats throughout the Gregorian wall calendar in apparent silence from month to month, with relatively few recognizing its illegitimate rhythms. Yet, it is this fact that all can see when comparing their wall calendar to that of the shamayim (heavens). For it is impossible to hold as valid two opposing calendars models that present two opposing doctrinal views. One formed by the WORD of our Creator, and the other that was masterminded and crafted by the hand of man, fully divorced in all conceivable ways from the rhythms of the visible created shamayim.
“Several customs which prevailed during the age between the Exodus of the Israelites and the resurrection of Christ had so completely changed by the seventeenth Christian century that the translators of the “Authorized Version” of the English Bible were not able to perceive some important truths taught in the Greek version of the Old Testament and the Greek New Testament. Unseen truth would not be clearly translated into the English Bible. The student who of necessity was limited in his studies to the English version would not be able to see more truth than was expressed in the English version. . . ibid
Second – Since the Jews for more than sixteen centuries have been observing a Saturday Sabbath, and since Christians have been for more than eighteen centuries having a fixed Sunday Sabbath, it is only reasonable to expect most Sabbath writers to try and interpret all Bible Sabbath teachings on the theory of fixed septenary cycles. But the noted Rabbi Hirsch believes and teaches that “The old (Hebrew) Sabbath had no connection with a fixed [cycling] week.” ibid
Third – The passing out of sight of the old Bible lunar calendar and the now almost universal effort to interpret the Bible upon the basis of solar calendars . . . Sixth – The losing sight of the use of uncounted days in the Bible calendar. . . Because of the failure to note the above mentioned difficulties it has become quite difficult so to write or teach as to be clearly understood about the Scriptural Sabbaths.” Sunday the World’s Rest Day, The Sabbath-The Lord’s Day, by Rev. Samuel W. Gamble, D.D. p. 81-82. Published for the New York Sabbath Committee, Doubleday, Page and Company, New York, 1916.
William Miller and the 2,300 Day/Year Prophecy
While the Seventh-day Adventist Church was not to be officially formed until 1863-64, the Millerite Movement was sharply coming to its climax and conclusion in the fall of 1844. For it all culminated in the perceived long awaited Second Coming event based entirely upon the Karaite Jewish luni-solar calendar as it related to Daniel 8:14, and the 2300 day for a year prophecy. Together with Samuel Snow, Miller ultimately declared after many years of intense research that this prophecy commenced in the autumn of 457 B.C., as recorded by Eusebius Pamphilus, Bishop of Caesarea in A.D. 325, and would terminate in the autumn of 1844 of the same luni-solar calendar, after several false flag events and disappointments. But this was to be the last of his proclamations for the return of his long awaited Savior.
Below is a well stated historical snapshot explanation from Wikipedia, on the subject of William Miller and his associates.
The Omitted Portion of the Appendix of the 1888 version of The Great Controversy
The following is copied directly from Ellen White’s 1888 version of The Great Controversy Between Christ and Satan. This gives an honest narrative of the events of 1844. Not a word is mine except the title.
Note 3 Omitted from the 1888 Version of
Commentary on General Note 3
General Note 3 was primarily intended to be a full disclosure and detailed explanation with regard to how William Miller arrived at the autumn of 1844 as the time of the Second Coming of the Messiah. And although Miller and his followers were again disappointed that their long anticipated Savior did not return to earth to deliver His awaiting saints, it continues to be taught as fact to this day by the Seventh-day Adventist Church that October 22, 1844 was the correct date, but for a different event. The actual event they believe to have commenced on that day was the anti-typical Day of Atonement, the cleansing of the heavenly sanctuary and beginning of the investigative judgment. For the very reason that the Adventists continue to firmly uphold this belief, this cannot be the reason for the removal of General Note 3.
It is my conviction that the white elephant in the room was the paragraph (shown below) alluding to the ancient Scriptural and Hebrew calendar. It was this portion alone that conflicted with the narrative contained in the book and of necessity had to be removed.
“Anciently the year did not commence in mid-winter, as now, but at the first New Moon after the Vernal Equinox. Therefore, as the period of 2,300 days was begun in a year reckoned by the ancient method, it was considered necessary to conform to that method to its close. Hence, 1843 was counted as ending in the spring, and not in the winter.” 1888 Great Controversy between Christ and Satan, Ellen G. White
This paragraph epitomizes the honest effort of William Miller and his associates to connect all the dots of the ancient Scriptural calendar, and by extension, that of the Hebrews at this pivotal hour and time of the Messiah’s expected return. But although their ideas were not realized, or provable with regard to the shift in events from the Second Coming of the Messiah to the Day of Atonement theory, they bore witness of the true calendar of the shamayim that is not made with human hands.
- They recognized that the Creator’s years were to commence in the spring on the first day of Abib, and not the winter.
- They recognized that the New Moon was the marker for establishing and demarcating the dates of the Scriptural lunar months.
- They profoundly recognized that if the ancient astro-luni-solar calendar was the one used at the commencement of this or any prophetic period extending to the end of time, they advocated that the same astro-luni-solar calendar must be utilized at its close.
Wow! Wow! Wow! These are the predominant and sensational points made in General Note 3 that must have been recognized in hindsight as conflicting with the modern calendar and the Saturday Sabbath view promoted to a large degree in the very same book written by Ellen White and her associates (historians and creative writers).
Not a single word or quote referencing this subject in the original 1888 Appendix remains in the 1911 or later publications of the book (GC). The absence of replacements conflicts with the declaration of W. C. White and His Mother, Ellen White, who declared that nothing was removed, but that only better or more accessible quotes were exchanged. For more info on this subject refer to article, The Great Easter Controversy.
William Miller and the Lunar Calendar
Below is an actual page from the Andrews University vault preserved in the Grace Amadon Collection that illustrates the lunar phases for the month of October 22, 1844. The Millerites utilized the first visible crescent as the New Moon, the first day of the Karaite Jewish seventh month, from which the Seventh Month Movement became known, and from which the 10th day (Gregorian calendar October 22) was counted. According to Samuel Snow and Miller’s calculations and therefore assumption, the 2,300 day/year prophecy was to end on that very night with the physical Second Coming of the Messiah. While William Miller later admitted he had been in error, a fledgling few continued to cling to this momentous date as having a valuable, yet differing significance than had at first been perceived.
Nearly 20 years later, it was from this flock that the Seventh-day Adventist Church was born, under the presumed prophetic guidance of Ellen White. Themselves victims of the Great Disappointment of 1844, they courageously examined the prophecy to determine their error, and forthwith declared that indeed this had been the eve of Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) as counted from the Karaite Jewish New Moon, but now believe that instead of the physical Second Coming, this had been the start of the Cleansing of the Sanctuary above from all forgiven sin. It was conceded that this Day of Atonement Feast Day, marked by the LUNAR DATE highlighted the beginning of a significant era that was renamed the Investigative Judgment, (a time in which the Eternal Father would go over the books and decide who should be saved and who should be lost). This Investigative Judgment theory, a foundational doctrine to this day, presumed to have begun on October 22, 1844, was a period of time determined by faithful Seventh-day Adventists to continue until the true Second Coming, a day they longed for, but knew not when.
How to calculate as the Millerites did in this 1844 lunar guide:
- Locate the month of October.
- Locate the first visible crescent lunar phase after the dark conjunction to mark what they perceived to be the correct New Moon (This was based upon the Karaite Jews method of utilizing the first visible crescent as the New Moon. The Karaites also often marked time one month following the Jews of Israel as occurred in 1844. The Jews who keep the dark moon as the New Moon celebrated Yom Kippur on what was the Roman date of September 21, 1844, in contrast to the Karaite Jews and Millerites). (It occurred on either the 12th or 13th of the month.)
- Then count from the New Moon day a full 10 days to find the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur). You should have ended up on the Gregorian calendar date of October 22, 1844 by using this method.
Emperors Ruling Time
It was only as emperors of nations sought to be omnipotent, exalting themselves as gods that they sought to manipulate and orchestrate to their own exaltation, time itself. While all early peoples and nations had utilized the sun, moon, and stars for measuring time as recorded in Genesis 1:14-18, it appears that our Creator’s true time-measuring mechanism had not been tampered with until after the great flood.
Some believe that Nimrod, King of Babylonian and His Son Tammuz, circa 1,300 B.C, were the first to utilize luni-solar time measuring for the start of months and years in contrast to the principles of luni-astro time that had been ordained by our Creator at creation (Four Scriptural Witnesses Testify the moon was ordained to rule with the stars and not the sun). The basic difference was in recognizing the dark conjunction lunar phase as the New Moon, which when aligned between the earth and the sun marked the starry constellation Dagon (Pisces) on the opposite side of the universe by day when both the moon and the constellation were invisible. Sadly, this was the method adopted by the Jews, circa 4th Century A.D, in contrast to the luni-astro time given at Creation that utilized the full moon as the true New Moon. On the night of this alignment, the earth comes between the sun and the full moon, which is in opposition. The full moon as New Moon arises in the east at sunset (west) marking the starry constellation Bethulah (Virgo) and announcing the spring Rosh Hashanah (New Year’s Day), and the first luni-astro month of the year (Abib).
Approximately 1,900 years later, it was the Egyptian mathematician who counseled Julius Caesar, Emperor of Rome, to merely eliminate the moon and all its lunar phases for the commencement and termination of months, days, and weeks that forever changed mankind’s perspective of measuring time. From the inception of this new system, Caesar discovered he could start the year whenever he wished. So he chose winter instead of spring to demonstrate his power to rule if possible even the shamayim (heavens). The month length, while keeping 12, was at the discretion of His personal whim. To some months he apportioned 28 days, and to others 31. The week was set as an eight-day cycle, to cycle without end; never again to start and stop at the sighting of the New Moon, and never again to perfectly fit into months or years.
“In the mid-1st century B.C., Julius Cæsar invited Sosigenes, an Alexandrian astronomer, to advise him about the reform of the calendar, and Sosigenes decided that the only practical step was to abandon the lunar calendar altogether. Months must be arranged on a seasonal basis, and a tropical [solar] year used, as in the Egyptian calendar.” “The Julian Calendar,” Encyclopedia Britannica.
The Roman eight-day week was known as internundinum tempus or “the period between ninth-day affairs.” (This term must be understood within the context of the ancient Roman mathematical practice of inclusive counting, whereby the first day of a cycle would also be counted as the last day of the preceding cycle. The “ninth-day affair” around which this week revolved was the nundinæ, a periodic market day that was held regularly every eight days. J. P. V. D. Balsdon, Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969), p. 59; P. Huvelin, Essai Historique sur le Droit des Marcheés et des Foires (Paris: Arthur Rousseau, 1897), p. 87; Ovid, Fasti (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1951), p. 6; Alan E. Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology (Munich: C. H. Beck’s che Verlagbuchhandlung, 1972), p. 154.
Four hundred years later, under the rule of Constantine the Great, the Julian eight-day week cycle was changed to a seven-day cycle, but this seven-day week bore little resemblance to the Creator’s original that was ordained to be counted, (starting and stopping) from one visible full New Moon event to the next (Isaiah 66:22-23). Instead the new seven-day week maintained the unbroken cycle that was first designated by Julius Caesar, who exalted himself as having power over time, the very signature of the Eternal.
In the year A.D. 358, under the pressure from Rome, the Jews, still in captivity since A.D. 71, fully surrendered their true and original luni-astro calendar and Sabbath, accepting the cycling Roman calendar week of seven days instead. It is not clearly defined as to their reasons for changing the New Moon from the full moon in opposition to the sun, to the dark moon in conjunction with the sun. But Rome allowed them to utilize this new, yet old Babylonian stylized New Moon system for marking their New Moon’s and annual Feast Days. In that same year the Nineteen Rules of Postponement were born out of a necessity to harmonize the Roman cycling week with the fixed lunar calendar in some fashion, whether orthodox or not. For the very fact that these 19 rules were needed, identifies that the Roman calendar and the lunar calendar, no matter what lunar phase was recognized as the New Moon, could never on their own be harmonized.
Take a few minutes to view the chart above, noting how the Roman week floats throughout its own Roman calendar month. It never consistently starts and stops in harmony with either the month or the first day of the Roman year. Add to this fact, the contrast found in Leviticus 23:5, which establishes the process for locating the sacred Feast Day of Passover as the fourteenth day counted from the New Moon. Add to this that verse 6 and 7 identify the start of the Feast of Unleavened Bread is on the 15th day counted from the New Moon, and is itself also the “holy convocation” or Seventh-day Sabbath (Leviticus 23:3). Then verse 11 as a second witness identifies that the Wave Sheaf (the 16th) was to be waved on the day after the Sabbath (15th). This is in part, how we get the three days and three nights of the crucifixion, Sabbath in the tomb, and the Resurrection.
Most folks are ignorant that the word translated as “month” is actually “New Moon” or “lunar month” as designated by the Hebrew text (חדשׁ – chodesh – New Moon, lunar month). For indeed the ancient Hebrew calendar months, weeks, and Sabbaths were based upon the revolutions of the moon, even unto our Messiah’s death. NEWS FLASH! The calendar our Messiah utilized for His worship and continues to mark the events of His crucifixion and Resurrection was NOT the Roman Gregorian Calendar.
Four ALARMING FACTS for our Seventh-day Adventist Friends
- For the last nearly 1,700 years, the Jews have not been able to harmonize the Roman calendar with its seven-day cycling week to the lunar calendar concept of Scripture that commences years, months, weeks, and days on the New Moon day. For if the Jews could have harmonized the two differing calendar models they would have. They have tried as noted by the unorthodox use of the Nineteen Rules of Postponement, but all that has done was cause them to postpone a Feast Day if it was going to collide with a Saturday Sabbath. For it is in reading Leviticus 23 that all the Feast Days are mapped out, utilizing a two prong GPS model. Each of the Feast days are identified by their day of the lunar month as counted from the New Moon, as well as their day of the week, showing how it was related to the seventh-day Sabbath, clarifying that the Creator’s Calendar is one united system, based entirely upon the astro-luni-solar time mechanism.
- The 28 Beliefs identify that Adventists continue to adhere to two foundational doctrines that are in opposition to each other and can never be harmonized: 1) The Investigative Judgement of 1844, which is based upon the principles of the lunar calendar, as well as Feast Day as noted in Leviticus 23. 2) Saturday Sabbath of the Roman Gregorian calendar has a seven-day cycling week that has no relation to the sun, moon, or stars that the Creator designed for measuring and ruling time. Strikingly, both of these doctrines fall like a house of cards in light of the Creator’s true Calendar spoken into existence and on display in the shamayim (heavens).
- Out of one side of the Seventh-day Adventist Church’s mouth they declare that the Feast Days were done away with at the cross. Yet, out of the other, they adamantly proclaim the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) of October 22, 1844 is the fulfillment of the 2,300 day/year prophecy of Daniel 8:14. Thirdly, they claim this Feast Day is the commencement of the Anti-Typical Day of Atonement, which has thus far proved to be an unlimited period of time that began on October 22, 1844 and will end at the Second Coming, a period of over 172 years of an unbroken Yom Kippur.
- But this brings up many questions! If the Feast Days have been done away with at the cross as they declare, then so has the Day of Atonement. They simply cannot have it both ways. But the S.D.A.’s have clung to the notion that only the Day of Atonement exists as late as 1844 and beyond. Yet, if Day of Atonement in 1844 was the true fulfillment of the 2,300 day/year prophecy, must it not terminate in the year it is fulfilled, as they believe all the spring Feasts terminated the year they were fulfilled? And if it has been done away with, how is it that they believe it can be resurrected for private use, utterly detached from all the other Scriptural Feast Days of: Rosh Hashanah (New Year’s Day), New Moon Days (Chodesh), Pasch (Passover), Matzah (Feast of Unleavened Bread), Shabuoth (Pentecost), Sukkot (Feast of Tabernacles), and Yom Shimini (Last Great Day). For it is upon this ancient system that Seventh-day Adventists claim Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) is done away, that they utilize it for their foundational doctrine. It simply cannot be both ways!
The only way this issue will disappear is if it can be disproved that Day of Atonement of October 22, 1844 was NOT counted from the New Moon after all; or if each of the seventh-day Sabbaths of Scripture, as listed in this article in connection with the sacred Feast Days, are NOT located on the specific lunar rhythm and dates of the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th of the lunar month?
Try, try as they might, mankind cannot effectively destroy what was pre-ordained by the Eternal Creator regarding His shamayim celestial time-piece (Genesis 1:14-18). And there will always be those who chose a day of worship that serves as their very method of forgetting Yahuah’s true Sabbath of remembrance. For the sacred and set-apart seventh-day Sabbath of Creation has always been, and always will be, honored, beaconed and numbered from the three part harmony of the moon, stars, and sun. All are synchronized to His, still in effect, Day of Atonement and His qadosh (appointed) Feast Days. The visible stars rule together with the full moon by night, while the sun rules alone by day. For in time-centric orchestration they declare the ETERNAL rhythm of worship of the created to their GREAT CREATOR. For it was His LIGHTS alone, in their correct order that beacon His sacred appointments with mankind. His LIGHTS were intrinsically designed to highlight the set-apart TIMES for supreme honor and reverence to the ETERNAL, self-existent one.