Constantine’s Easter Controversy
with the Quartodecimen
Equipped with his newly fabricated calendar and Easter Sunday, Constantine waged an all-out war on the Messiah’s obedient Quartodecimens. Revealed herein is astounding historical, astronomical, and Scriptural evidence that the original Passover dating system, and that of the true seventh-day Sabbath were ordained by the Creator to be perpetually counted from the full moon as the original New Moon, and NOT the modern Roman solar calendar or modern Jewish (Babylonian) dark moon. Furthermore, Passover was appointed as the true sign and seal of Yahuah, to be consistently kept by the Messiah’s followers to the end of time. Is it any wonder these TRUTHS have been the target of the enemy of souls?
Note: All emphasis within the historical quotes are mine.
Historical Overview of Constantine’s Easter Controversy
The great dispute, known as the Easter Controversy began in the 2nd century A.D. This is when Roman Bishops and Emperors sought to unite their entire kingdom empire, the eastern Asiatics (Israel and surrounding areas) with the western Roman churches (Italy and surrounding areas) for the purpose of celebrating EASTER their replacement of Passover, on the exact same day of the week. This plan was not fully successful until Emperor Constantine, at the Council of Nicaea A.D. 321-325, instituted the new seven-day planetary week. The SUN was given the highest honor, as the first day of this new cycling week was called Dies Solis (Day of the Sun), and the seventh-day was called Dies Saturnis (Day of Saturn). This new week was cut from the cloth of their former eight-day cycling week and therefore had no rhythmic connection to the week of creation, no matter how difficult it may be to give up this notion.
By aligning Dies Solis (Sunday) with the day of our Messiah’s Resurrection, it caused Dies Saturnis (Saturday) to appear on the surface to be the set-apart and eternal seventh-day Sabbath of Scripture. But nothing could be further from the truth.
“The long-term effect was that ‘Easter Sunday’ entered the Christian paradigm as ‘The Day of Christ’s Resurrection.’ The corollary to this realignment of time calculation was that the day preceding Easter Sunday, Saturday, became forever after ‘The True Bible Sabbath.’ This is the true significance of Constantine’s ‘Sunday law’ and it laid the foundation for the modern assumption that a continuous weekly cycle has always existed.” eLaine Vornholt & Laura Lee Vorholt-Jones, Calendar Fraud, “Biblical Calendar Outlawed.”
Up to this time the obedient followers of the Messiah (Natsarim) had celebrated this most marvelous and significant set of events according to the ancient astro-luni-solar calendar model contained in the Torah (Old Testament LAW). In the early days these trustworthy believers were dubbed by the Roman Bishops the name Quartodecimen (Fourteeners) as they celebrated Passover on the 14th day as counted from the New Moon in the lunar month of Aviv.
These same folks, including all the apostles along with their disciples after them, such as Polycarp, and others, remained consistent in celebrating the Passover of the Messiah’s great sacrifice, on the 14th day from the New Moon every year. Thus it is, that the day between Passover on the 14th, and Feast of First Fruits on the 16th of the lunar month, is consistently the qadosh (sacred) seventh-day Sabbath of the 15th day according to the count from the New Moon. This places all other seventh-day Sabbaths for the month and year on the lunar dates of the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th. (Leviticus 2; Isaiah 66:23; Ezekiel 46:1-3)
The question relating to the observance of Easter [instead of Passover], which was agitated in the time of Anicetus and Poly carp, and afterwards in that of Victor, was still undecided. It was one of the principal reasons for convoking the council of Nice, being the most important subject to be considered after the Arian controversy. It appears that the churches of Syria and Mesopotamia continued to follow the custom of the Jews, and celebrated Easter [Passover] on the fourteenth day of the moon, whether falling on Sunday or not. A Historical View of the Council of Nice, p. 22, translated by Isaac Boyle, D.D. New York: Thomas N. Staintford, 637 Broadway, 1856.
There was a considerable discussion raised about this time, in consequence of a difference of opinion respecting the observance of the paschal [Passover] season. The churches of all Asia, guided by a remoter tradition, supposed that they ought to keep the fourteenth day of the moon for the festival of the Savior’s Passover, in which day the Jews were commanded to kill the paschal lamb; and it was incumbent on them, at all times, to make an end of the fast on this day, on whatever day of the [Roman] week it should happen to fall. The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius Pamphilus, Bishop of Caesarea, in Palestine, translated by Christian Frederick Cruse, D.D., Tenth Edition, Chapter 23, p. 207. 1850.
Note: Passover always fell on the fourteenth day counted from the full New Moon, which was always the sixth day of the lunar week cycle. The reference to “whatever day of the week it should happen to fall” was distinctly referring to the Roman calendar alone. This identifies and qualifies the controversy was both TIME and EVENT related, for these two week models were not in sync with each other.
But notwithstanding the decision of the council [of Nicaea] there were some Quartodecimens, as they were termed; who remained pertinaciously attached to the celebration of Easter [Passover] on the fourteenth of the moon, and among others the Audeans, schismatics of Mesopotamia. They found fault with the council, reproachfully remarking, that this was the first time that the ancient tradition [of properly locating Passover by the moon], through compliance for Constantine, had been departed from. A Historical View of the Council of Nice, p. 23, translated by Isaac Boyle, D.D. New York: Thomas N. Staintford, 637 Broadway, 1856.
The edict was declared far and wide that the Roman stylized Easter was to be consistently and unitedly celebrated upon “the first Sunday after the full moon that follows the vernal equinox.” http://www.catholic.com/quickquestions/how-is-easter-sunday-determined-palm-sunday-ash-wednesday. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter.
This edict was designed to place Easter in a general proximity to the ancient, Scriptural Passover, and yet remain separate. The decision of the Roman Catholic Church Bishops to choose a day other than that of the preordained customary day of Passover was borne out of their hatred for the Jews. Wanting no ties to the Jews or their astro-luni-solar calendar, they falsely presumed that their own belief in the resurrected Messiah afforded themselves license to choose a day that suited their interests as a contrast to the Jews whom they maintained had killed the Messiah.
So it was in changing the name of Passover, Unleavened Bread and First Fruits to the single term Easter, and celebrating it upon Saturday night and Sunday morning of the Roman planetary week, the Roman Catholic Church had effectively separated themselves and all their adherents (protestant daughter churches) from the worship rhythms of Scripture and the New Jerusalem, itself. This together with the name change of Yahusha the Messiah to Jesus Christ, was the birth of what is known today as Christianity. Constantine’s Creation of Jesus Christ.
Make no mistake, the total eradication of the Quartodecimen way of calculating New Moons, qodesh Feast Days, and Sabbaths, was designed to cause all to adopt the Roman Julian calendar and her artificial holidays. Thus it is that when the Easter Controversy is discussed it must be understood that it was not simply a conflict over a single day, but a unity pressure tank, effectively designed to force all believers to adopt the same calendar model of the Roman Empire.
My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge. Because you have rejected knowledge, I also will reject you from being kohen (priest) for me. Because you have forgotten the TORAH of your Alahim, I also will forget your children. Hosea 4:6
Perhaps these concepts are still so new to you that you find yourself asking, “I don’t see how changing when the year or month begin would affect the Sabbath in any way.” The point here is that there are two diabolically different calendars represented, one in Scripture and one by Rome, each contain a uniquely different stylized month and week of seven days.
Below is an illustration designed to depict the inherent differences between how each week model works within its respective month. (Click on image to enlarge it.)
It should come as no surprise that the modern week has been proactively disconnected from its count from each full New Moon. But greater still, the month has been utterly removed from the moon, for which it gets its name. It has been reconfigured to commence according to the sun’s placement within the starry constellations on the opposite side of the universe during daylight, when the stars are not even visible. Thus, the visible stars witnessed each night are never utilized for measuring time, nor the full moon recognized as marking the new month’s commencement. This was proactively accomplished by Julius Caesar, when the first draft of the Julian calendar was drawn and later supported by Pope Sixtus, Victor, Bishop of Rome, and ultimately Constantine.
This is 180 degrees opposite of the Creator’s original calendar as these two witnesses (Psalms and Genesis) declare the moon is to rule with the stars by night. By extension, the Creator’s months are only truly defined as these two working in unison herald their commencement and termination, from one full New Moon to another.
To Him who made great lights, for His mercy endures forever— the sun to rule by day, for His compassion endures forever; the moon and stars to rule by night, for His compassion endures forever. Psalms 136:7-9
Then Alahim made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night. He made [with] the stars also. Genesis 1:16
For more information regarding astro-luni-solar calendar refer to, The Creator’s Calendar Units of Time.
Historical Lunar Week and Sabbath Quotes
The belief, that the week has come down uninterrupted since Creation, is not an assumption shared by modern Jewish scholars who know their history. Rather, it appears the 2nd – 4th century Jewish leaders, along with the Romans had a part to play in the change.
“In the years following Clement of Alexandria’s time (A.D. 150-215), an ominous change started to take place that was to radically change the Christian concept of the Sabbath.” This intimate connection between the week and the month was soon dissolved. It is certain that the week soon followed a development of its own, and it became the custom — without paying any regard to the days of the month (i.e. the luni-solar month) . . . so that the New Moon no longer coincided with the first day of the month. Then, on page 4179 of the same encyclopedia, we read: “The introduction . . . of the custom of celebrating the Sabbath every 7th day, irrespective of the relationship of the day to the moon’s phases, led to a complete separation from the ancient view of the Sabbath. . . Encyclopaedia Biblica, 1903 p. 5290.
“Even after Constantine’s edict about Sunday circa A.D. 321-324, it took another generation or two for the seven-day week to catch on throughout the empire. The 24-hour system took longer, having to wait until the invention of the mechanical clock in the Middle Ages by monks anxious to observe with precision their canonical hours. Before this, people marked the passage of time during the night by using the stars and during the day either by eyeballing the sun or by listening to public announcements of the time.” Calendar, David Ewing Duncan, p. 47, New York, Avon Books, 1998.
“The invention of the continuous week was therefore one of the most significant breakthroughs in human beings’ attempts to break away from being prisoners of nature [time beaconed by the ordained sun, moon, and stars] and create a social world of their own.” The Seven Day Circle: The History and Meaning of the Week, Eviator Zerubavel, New York: The Free Press, 1985. p.11.
“Most theologians and some scholars assume that mainstream Jewish society, at the time of Jesus…was practicing a fixed seven-day week which was the same as the modern fixed [Roman planetary cycling] seven-day week. This is extremely doubtful. The change, from a lunar to a fixed week, was brought about by the power and influence of Rome. As long as the Nazarenes held power in Jerusalem, all Roman practices and customs, including that of the consecutive week, were held at bay.” Shawui Sabbath: Ancient Sabbath Observance
“The [early] Hebrews employed lunar seven-day weeks, which ended with special observances on the seventh day, but none the less were tied to the moon’s course.” Rest Days, Hutton Webster, p. 254-255
“He [Constantine] wished, almost the necessity, of so keeping Easter as to make the day of crucifixion Friday, and of the resurrection Sunday, caused differences of opinion that led to persecution and bloodshed.” Mazzaroth, The Constellations, Frances Rolleston, p. 133. Rivingtons, London, 1862.
“The Jewish festivals being regulated solely by the moon, may fall on any day of the [modern Roman] week.” Oxford English Dictionary, 1971 Edition, Vol. 2, “Pentecost.”
“The modern seven-day week came into use during the early imperial period, after the Julian calendar came into effect, apparently stimulated by immigration from the Roman East. For a while it coexisted alongside the old 8-day nundinal cycle, and fasti are known which show both cycles. It was finally given official status by Constantine in 321.” Roman Calendar Encyclopedia, Days of the Week.
“The Sabbath depending, in Israel’s nomadic period, upon the observation of the phases of the moon, it could not, accordingly be a fixed day [planetary day of the modern Roman cycling week]. The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History. Edited by Isidore Singer, Cyrus Adler. Volume 10, p. 590.
“It is certain that the Jews celebrated the sheaf-waving on Nisan 16 and Pentecost on the fiftieth day after . . . without regard in either case to the day of the [modern Roman] week.” Oxford English Dictionary, 1971 Edition, Vol. 2, “Pentecost.”
“We shall be taken for Persians [Mithraists], perhaps . . . The reason for this, I suppose, is that it is known that we pray towards the east . . . Likewise, if we devote the day of the Sun to festivity (from a far different reason from Sun worship), we are in a second place from those who devote the day of Saturn, themselves also deviating by way of a Jewish custom of which they are ignorant.” Tertullian, Apologia.
The weeks do not continue in a regular cycle regardless of the moon. Each month has four weeks, their beginning with the New Moon. I have no doubt that this was the old Hebrew system. Babylonian Menologies and the Semitic Calendars, p. 89.
“It should be noted that the oldest dated Christian inscription to employ a planetary designation [Sunday – Saturday, unbroken cycle of weeks] belongs to the year 269 A.D.” Inscriptiones Christianae Urbis Romae, ed. De Rossi, 1861, i, No. 1.
“The present Jewish calendar was fixed [to the Roman planetary weekly cycle] in the fourth century.” Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Letter by Louis Finkelstein to Dr. Leroy E. Froom, Feb. 20, 1939.
“There was a distinct break between the Old Testament requirements . . . dealing with the Sabbath worship… They wanted to show that Christianity was distinct from Judaism… The other thing that we should remember, too, is that our calendar that we follow, including Seventh-day Adventists, is not only a calendar that was devised by the Catholic Church, but also it is a calendar that’s based upon the solar year, not the lunar year. The Jewish calendar that was observed in the time of Christ follows a lunar [lunisolar] calendar . . . So the great irony is that even the Seventh-day Adventists themselves are not worshiping on exactly the same Sabbath day as the Jews of the time of Christ.” Patrick Madrid, Catholic Evangelist and conservative made the startling comment on EWTN, Global Catholic Radio Network on Jan 5, 2006 when answering a question about the Catholic Church changing the day of worship from Saturday to Sunday.
“But to the seventh-day of the week he has assigned the greatest festivals, those of the longest duration, at the periods of the equinox both vernal and autumnal in each year; appointing two festivals for these two epochs, each lasting seven days; the one which takes place in the spring being for the perfection of what is being sown, and the one which falls in autumn being a feast of thanksgiving for the bringing home of all the fruits which the trees have produced”… F.H. Colson’s translation of Philo’s THE DECALOGUE XXX (159)
Referring to the quote above— Let’s look carefully at what Philo is saying. “But to the seventh-day of the week He has assigned the greatest festivals,” in other words the greatest (longest) festivals have been assigned to the seventh-day of the week [Sabbath the 15th] which begins the festival and lasts for seven days. We know both of these seven-day feasts begin on the 15th (Sabbath). Each of them lasts for seven days, and each one of these events were assigned to the seventh-day Sabbath of the week (15th) to begin the feast and it lasted seven days. Philo goes on to say that each month (first and seventh) should receive a special honor of one sacred day of festival, for the purpose of refreshing and clearing the mind with its holiday. Notice he did not say they would receive two holy days of festivals, but one, the 15th. To prove the seventh-day of the week is the same as the 15th, elsewhere Philo states, “Again the beginning of this feast is appointed for the fifteenth day of the month (or seventh day of the week) on account of the reason which has already been mentioned respecting the spring season might receive special honor of one sacred day of festival.” In other words, Philo is saying the weekly Sabbath begins these feasts, and is on the 15th. This proves the Sabbaths by the lunar calendar because there is no way the weekly Sabbath (15th) can begin these two festivals on the 15th in the 1st and 7th month each year, on a continuous seven day cycle by the calendar of today.” www.livingthetorah.webs.com/philoacrediblewitness.htm
“The connection of the Sabbath with lunar phases, however, was discarded by the Israelites . . .” The New Schaff-Herzog Religious Encyclopedia, p. 135-136.
[The emphasis in all quotes is mine unless otherwise noted.]
Change from Lunar Sabbath to Sunday
Additional confirmation from another angle establishing the truth behind the Easter Controversy and the Quartodecimens may be found in the real story of what Emperor Constantine in 325 A.D. began, and Emperor Julian in 364 A.D., completed that designated Sunday’s solemnity.
Saturday Sabbatarians have taught as fact that at the Council of Laodicea Emperor Julian changed the sanctity of the Creator’s Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday as it is falsely construed to appear in the following English translation:
“Christians shall not Judaize and be idle on Saturday, but shall work on that day; but the Lord’s Day they shall especially honor, and, as being Christians, shall, if possible, do no work on that day. If however, they are found Judaizing, they shall be shut out from Christ.” Falsely translated from the Council of Laodicea, Canon 29
However, the above quote is in grave error and a cause for great misunderstanding. According to Karl J. von Hefele, a Catholic Bishop, in his History of the Councils of the Church from the Original Documents, states that the word Saturday (dies Saturni) does not exist either in the Greek or Latin text. Rather, the word Saturday was supplied in the English translation in place of the word Sabbato, meaning [Hebrew lunar] Sabbath. The following is the original text as written in Latin:
“Quod non oportet Christianos Judaizere et otiare in Sabbato, sed operari in eodem die. Preferentes autem in veneratione Dominicum Diem si vacre voluerint, ut Christiani hoc faciat; quod si reperti fuerint Judaizere Anathema sint a Christo.” Council of Laodicea, Canon 29
At the time the Julian calendar was being enforced upon the Messiah’s followers for religious purposes (2nd – 4th century A.D.), no one confused the word Sabbato with dies Saturni. Simply everyone at that time knew these were two designations for two different days on two distinctly opposing calendar models. It is only as the facts of history have been lost and forgotten, that Saturday has been assumed to be the seventh-day Sabbath of Scripture.
Therefore, this historic quote from the Council of Laodicea, Canon 29, referred strictly to the lunar Sabbath of the Hebrew calendar, and NOT to the Julian or Gregorian Saturday. Although in the 4th century the Roman week was changing from its eight-day designation to that of seven, it remained disengaged from the lunar phases since its inception in 45 B.C
“In the mid-1st century B.C. Julius Cæsar invited Sosigenes, an Alexandrian astronomer, to advise him about the reform of the calendar, and Sosigenes decided that the only practical step was to abandon the lunar calendar altogether. Months must be arranged on a seasonal basis, and a tropical (solar) year used, as in the Egyptian calendar.” Encyclopedia Britannica. “The Julian Calendar,”
Originally at creation, and passed down through all the patriarchs and prophets, astro-luni-solar time-keeping was betrothed to mankind to synchronize the obedient of earth with the worship rhythms of the New Jerusalem, the dwelling place of Yahuah. This was the only time-system consistently kept by the Hebrew people during their times of loving obedience.
These . . . eventually led Jewish rabbis to call Saturn “Shabbti,” ‘the star of the Sabbath.’ It was not until the first century of our era, when the planetary week had become an established institution that the Jewish Sabbath seems always to have corresponded to Saturn’s Day [Saturday]. Rest Days, Hutton Webster p.244.
But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves. Amos 5:26
Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, figures which ye made to worship them; and I will carry you away beyond Babylon. Acts 7:43
Chiun and Remphan are synonymous terms that refer to the same god and star of Saturn. This is Saturn worship, otherwise known as Satan worship. It is the worship of the hidden god, Satan, whose star and iconic symbol is Saturn.
“Early historical records clearly confirm that very early Gentile Christians also kept the same Sabbath as the Nazarenes. This practice was first changed by “[Pope] Sixtus in 126 AD, and later officially changed by a royal Roman decree from the Emperor Constantine. Observance of the [Hebrew lunar] Sabbath day was made illegal and observance of a “Sunday” of a fixed [cycling planetary designated] week was made mandatory for all except farmers. Previous to this time the Roman Saturday was the first day of the Roman week. The veneration of the Sun in the second century AD began to pressure Roman culture to change the first day of their week from Saturn Day to Sunday.” Shawui Sabbath: Ancient Sabbath Observance, Section 7: The Christian Sabbath Observance in History.
It is only by knowing the facts of the original events that the genuine truth may be comprehended. At the end of the day, it is the TRUTH that will set us free from the Roman yoke and its mixture of truth with error. Only the Messiah’s dutiful and obedient will seek the truth at all cost, whether popular or not.
Historical Record of Eusebius in A.D. 325
Eccliastical Histories by Eusebius
Translated from the Original
By Christian Frederick Cruse, D. D.
ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 207
The question then agitated respecting the Passover.*
There was a considerable discussion raised about this time, in consequence of a difference of opinion respecting the observance of the paschal season. The churches of all Asia, guided by a remoter tradition, supposed that they ought to keep the fourteenth day of the moon for the festival of the Savior’s Passover, in which day the Jews were commanded to kill the paschal lamb; and it was incumbent on them, at all times, to make an end of the fast on this day, on whatever day of the [Roman] week it should happen to fall.
But as it was not the custom to celebrate it in this manner in the churches throughout the rest of the world, who observe the practice that has prevailed from apostolic tradition until the present time, so that it would not be proper to terminate our fast on any other but the day of the resurrection of our Savior. Hence there were synods and convocations of the bishops on this question; and all [Catholic leaders] unanimously drew up an ecclesiastical decree, which they communicated to all the churches in all places, that the mystery of our Lord’s resurrection should be celebrated on no other day than the Lord’s-day [Sunday]; and that on this day alone we should observe the close of the paschal fasts. There is an epistle extant even now, of those who were assembled at the time; among whom presided Theophilus, bishop of the church in Caesarea, and Narcissus, bishop of Jerusalem. There is also another epistle extant on the same question, bearing the name of Victor.
A Historical View of the Council of Nice
Translated by Isaac Boyle. D. D.
22 COUNCIL OF NICEA.
The question relating to the observance of Easter, which was agitated in the time of Anicetus and Poly carp, and afterwards in that of Victor, was still undecided. It was one of the principal reasons for convoking the council of Nicea, being the most important subject to be considered after the Arian controversy. It appears that the churches of Syria and Mesopotamia continued to follow the custom of the Jews, and celebrated Easter on the fourteenth day of the moon, whether falling on Sunday or not.
All the other churches observed that solemnity on Sunday only, viz. those of Rome, Italy, Africa, Libya, Egypt, Spain, Gaul and Britain; and all Greece, Asia, and Pontus. It was considered indecorous, and as affording occasion of scandal to unbelievers, that while some were engaged in fasting and penitence, others should be indulging in festivity and relaxation.
This subject having been discussed, it was decreed to celebrate Easter on the same day, and the oriental prelates promised to conform to the practice of Rome, of Egypt, and of all the West. St. Athanasius remarks a difference of language, in pronouncing on this subject, from that which was used in reference to the faith. With respect to the latter it is said, “this is the catholic faith, we believe,” but, in order to show that it was no new determination, l) it an apostolic tradition. Accordingly, no date is given to this decision, neither the day nor the year being mentioned. But with regard to Easter, it is said, ” we have resolved as follows,” in order to show that all were expected to obey.* Easter day was fixed on the Sunday immediately following the new moon, which was nearest after the vernal equinox, because it is certain that our Savior rose from the dead on the Sunday, which next succeeded the Passover of the Jews.
[Note: Please compare the above designation of the placement of Easter (highlighted in yellow) with the modern reckoning of Easter proclaimed by the modern Catholicism, as defined on page 2 of this article. Constantine clearly intended that Easter follow the “new moon,” as shown above, while today this designation is qualified as the “full moon.” There can be no doubt that at the time of Constantine the “full moon” had always been the Scriptural “new moon,” as kept by the Jews and is well documented in Scripture. It is only as the Jews finally made the switch from the original “full moon” as “new moon” to the “dark conjunction” of Babylon that Rome must now qualify that the “full moon” is the 14th day of the month, rather than its original designation as the true “new moon.” There can be no doubt that since the time of the Council of Nicaea the designation of the “full moon” as “new moon” has been proactively changed to the occulted moon or first visible crescent.]
[Now compare the following paragraph that illustrates there was no confusion on Rome’s part that their reference was to the “new moon” as “full moon.” For the 14th of the month can only be found or calculated from the full moon, as they so much as stated. Even the U.S.N.O. (United States Naval Observatory) today measures all the lunations from full moon to full moon as they openly admit on their website.]
In order to find more readily the first day of the moon, and consequently the fourteenth, the council ordained that the cycle of nineteen years should be made use of, because at the end of this period, the new moons return very nearly to the same days of the solar year.
This [18.6 or 19 year] cycle, which is denominated in Greek, had been discovered about seven hundred and fifty years before, by Meton, a mathematician of Athens, and it has since been termed the golden number, because it was customary to mark in the calendar with letters of gold, the days of the new moon. It has been thought that the synod assigned the task of this calculation to Eusebius of Caesarea. It is certain, however, that he had composed a paschal canon of nineteen years, and that he had explained the nature and origin of this question in a treatise dedicated to the emperor Constantine, who gave him thanks for it in a letter.
[The practice of highlighting with letters of gold the golden number, a reference to all the new moons in a nineteen year period (shown below), identifies the new moon at that time was of the LIGHT rather than an occulted fully dark lunar phase, as kept by the Rabbinical Jews, or the crescent later kept by the Karaite Jews. Otherwise their custom would most likely to have been to highlight it with black.]
But notwithstanding the decision of the council there were some Quartodecimen, as they were termed, who remained pertinaciously attached to the celebration of Easter on the fourteenth of the moon, and among others the Audeans, schismatics of Mesopotamia. They found fault with the council, reproachfully remarking, that this was the first time that the ancient tradition, through complaisance for Constantine, had been departed from.
52 COUNCIL OF NICEA.
Letter of Constantine
Augustus to the [Roman] Churches
Having experienced, in the flourishing state of public affairs, the greatness of the divine goodness, I thought it especially incumbent on me to endeavor that the happy multitudes of the Catholic Church should preserve one faith, be united in unfeigned love, and harmoniously join in their devotions to Almighty God. But this could not otherwise be affected in a firm and solid manner, than by an examination, for this purpose, of whatever pertains to our most holy religion, by all the bishops, or the greater part of them at least, assembled together. Having therefore convened as many as possible, I myself being present, and, as it were, one of you, (nor do I deny that I exceedingly rejoice in being your fellow-servant,) everything was examined, until a unanimous sentiment, pleasing to God, who sees all things, was brought to light; so that no pretense was left for dissension or controversy respecting the faith.
When the question arose concerning the most holy day of Easter, it was decreed by common consent to be expedient, that this festival should be celebrated on the same day by all, in every place. For what can be more beautiful, what more venerable and becoming, than that this festival, from which we receive the hope of immortality, should be suitably observed by all in one and the same order, and by a certain rule. And truly, in the first place, it seemed to everyone a most unworthy thing that we should follow the custom of the Jews in the celebration of this most holy solemnity, who, polluted having stained their hands with a nefarious crime, are justly blinded in their minds.
It is fit, therefore, that, rejecting the practice of this people, we should perpetuate to all future ages the celebration of this rite, in a more legitimate order, which we have kept from the first day of our Lord’s passion even to the present times. Let us then have nothing in common with the most hostile rabble of the Jews. We have received another method from the Savior. A more lawful and proper course is open to our most holy religion. In pursuing this course with a unanimous consent, let us withdraw ourselves, my much honored brethren, from that most odious fellowship.
It is indeed in the highest degree preposterous, that they should superciliously vaunt themselves, that truly without their instruction, we cannot properly observe this rite. For what can they rightly understand who, after the tragic death of our Lord, being deluded and darkened in their minds, are carried away by an unrestrained impulse wherever their inborn madness may impel them.
Hence therefore it is, that, even in this particular, they do not perceive the truth, so that continually wandering in the grossest error, instead of duly reforming their calculation, they commemorate the Passover twice in the same year. Why then should we follow those who are acknowledged to labor under a grievous error? For we will never tolerate the keeping of a double Passover in one year. But if what I have said should not be thought sufficient, it belongs to your ready discernment, both by diligence and prayer, to use every means, that the purity of your minds may not be affected by conformity in anything with the customs of the vilest of mankind. Besides, it should be considered that any dissension in a business of such importance, and in a religious institution of so great solemnity, would be highly criminal. For the Savior has bequeathed us one festal day of our liberation, that is, the day of his most holy passion; and it was his pleasure that his Church should be one; the members of which, although dispersed in many and various places, are yet nourished by the same spirit, that is, by the will of God.
Let the sagacity of your holiness only consider, how painful and indecorous it must be, for some to be experiencing the rigors of abstinence, and others to be unbending their minds in convivial enjoyment on the same day; and after Easter, for some to be indulging in feasting and relaxation, while others are occupied in the observance of the prescribed fasts. Wherefore, that a suitable reformation should take place in this respect, and that one rule should be followed, is the will of divine providence, as all, I think, must perceive.
As it is necessary that this fault should be so amended that we may have nothing in common with the usage of these parricides and murderers of our Lord ; and as that order is most convenient which is observed by all the churches of the West, as well as those of the southern and northern parts of the world, and also by some in the East, it was judged therefore to be most equitable and proper, and I pledged myself that this arrangement should meet your approbation, viz. that the custom which prevails Avith one consent in the city of Rome, and throughout all Italy, Africa and Egypt, in Spain, Gaul, Britain, Libya, the whole of Greece, the diocese of Asia, Pontus and Cilicia, would be gladly embraced by your prudence, considering that not only the greatest number of churches exist in the places which have been already mentioned, but also that it is most religious and equitable that all should wish what the strictest reason seems to require, and to have no fellowship with the perjury of the Jews.
And, to sum up the whole in a few words, it was agreeable to the common judgment of all, that the most holy feast of Easter should be celebrated on one and the same day. Nor is it becoming, that in so sacred an observance there should be any diversity; and it is better to follow that decision, in which all participation in the sin and error of others is avoided. These being the case, receive with cheerfulness the heavenly and truly divine command. For whatever is transacted in the holy councils of the bishops, is to be referred to the divine will.
Wherefore, having announced to our beloved brethren what has been already written, it is your duty to receive and establish the arguments already stated, and the observance of the most holy day; that when I shall come into your beloved presence, so long desired by me, I may be able to celebrate, with you, on one and the same day, the holy festival, and that in all things I may rejoice with you; seeing that the cruelty of the devil is taken away by divine power, through my instrumentality, and that your faith, your peace and concord is everywhere flourishing.
May God preserve you, my beloved brethren.
Constantine circa A.D. 321-324
[The emphasis is mine in all cases unless otherwise noted.]
Underlined above, Constantine shares his disdain that the Jews keep Passover twice a year. Numbers 9:11 outlines that if one is unclean for any reason at the time of Passover in the first month, he/she may keep it on the 14th day of the second month. But, in addition to this there may have already become a conflict among the Jews as to which lunar phase was to be kept as the true New Moon. Was it the Babylonian crescent or the full moon? This would have caused differing factions among the Jews to celebrate Passover two weeks apart and not simply in the second month. The calendar wars, profoundly recorded among the Dead Sea Scrolls testify to this with abundant evidence.
The above portion of the Ecclesiastical Histories by Eusebius, a Roman Governor, predominately stands as authentication to the inherent facts of the Great Easter Controversy extending from the 2nd – 4th century A.D. This historical work clarifies the issues and accurately identifies the true calendar and Passover obediently upheld by the Natsarim (Quartodecimen) in contrast to the artificial calendar and Easter celebration of Constantine and His dutiful subjects, the Christians. This remains the principle witness of the change that occurred to calendation following the Messiah’s death and resurrection. It is this revelation that highlights the two opposing calendar models, the two diverse weekly models, and the destructive effect this hellish transformation has had on all the Creator’s prophetic set-apart New Moons, seventh-day Sabbaths, and annual feast, as outlined in Scripture.
What Impact Might This Have on Us Today?
Before the Second Coming of the Messiah, this critical issue is expected to arise a second time. A heated conflict will likely be stirred up by the Papacy to put an end, once and for all to the modern Quartodecimen schismatics who usurp the Roman Pontifical authority of both civil and sacred time-keeping.
These loving obedient alone will proclaim that indeed “the shamayim (heavens) declare the majesty of Yahuah,” which are profoundly connected to the Messiah’s prophetic fulfillment of His three part ministration in His temple not made with hands. This temple system had its wonderful commencement at the cross and will continue until He returns in the clouds.
Yahuah’s TRUTH shall TRIUMPH! Time—the very signature of our Creator, like Himself, “changes not.” For it is His astro-luni-solar time-piece, as beaconed by the celestial sun, moon and stars, which bears witness to the Aleph and Tav, the beginning and end, from eternity past to eternity future.
All the obedient believers, who seek an eternal home with their Savior, will march in time and rhythm to their Creator’s principles of time, to the beat of His prophecies, as declared by His appointed qodesh Feast Days with the same precision as their Master, and that of the Quartodecimen.
These are they who follow the Lamb whither soever He goes. Revelation 14:4
These are they who worship according to the monthly and weekly rhythm of the New Moons and lunar Sabbaths.
As from one New Moon to another and one Sabbath to another, all flesh shall worship before me says Yahuah. Isaiah 66:23.
Mastery of Deception
As the Pope of Rome moves toward securing an official seat in Jerusalem, it matters not to anyone’s salvation whether He recants of past errors of injustice, or makes an Ecclesiastical Decree that all the world must unite upon the sacredness of Saturday instead of Sunday, the current fraudulent seventh-day Sabbath, which was initially stylized by Rome, was ultimately adopted by the Jews under duress.
Indeed, this may be the last great delusion that will come upon the world. It will occur as an overwhelming surprise to all who do not take the time now to investigate. In one fell swoop, the greatest Hegelian Dialectic stylized deception ever perpetrated upon mankind, will offer a choice between two equally fraudulent sacred days, i.e., Saturday and Sunday, each bearing the mark of the beast’s counterfeit system of worship.
For many this would be the mastery of deception. The only safety is in following the Creator’s astro-luni-solar calendar timepiece as defined in Scripture. The willful disobedient will be deceived, and caused to believe a lie, all the while claiming Christianity (based upon the Roman Jesus Christ) and its falsified Saturday Sabbath or Lord’s day, as their ticket to an eternal home. Might this be the very reason for which the Messiah warned?
Not everyone who says to Me, “Yahusha, Yahusha,” shall enter the kingdom of shamayim, but he who does the will of My Father in the shamayim. Many will say to Me in that day, “Yahusha, Yahusha”, “have we not prophesied in Your name, cast out demons in Your name, and done many wonders in Your name?” And then I will declare to them, “I never knew you; depart from Me, you who practice lawlessness!” Matthew 7:21-23
On that climactic day, the only individuals destined for an eternal reward will be those who bare the sign and seal of Yahuah of Scripture— as modern day Quartodecimen. These are they who continue to count to Passover, the 14th day from the full New Moon and keep a lunar based Sabbath from one New Moon to another.
It [Passover] shall be as a sign to you on your hand and as a memorial between your eyes that Yahuah’s law may be in your mouth; for with a strong hand Yahuah has brought you out of Egypt. You shall therefore keep this ordinance in its season from year to year. Exodus 13:9-10
They call upon their loving Father, Yahuah, and their Messiah, Yahusha, by their true names. For in them is power unto righteousness.
Thus it is, that neither Saturday nor Sunday have ever been the ancient seventh-day Sabbath of the Creator, Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Daniel, the Apostles, or our Messiah and Savior.
And the times of this ignorance, Yahuah winked at; but now commands all men everywhere to repent. Acts 17:30 KJV
The Messiah, Yahusha, laid down His life as the sacrifice for sin upon Passover that you may have the freedom to choose.
If knowing the TRUTH is of the highest priority to you, then ask the Almighty Father to reveal His TRUTH to you now, whether you believe your church or its leaders have nailed it all down already or not, for there is no way for progressive truth to reach you unless you ask of your Father above. Second, you must ask Him to help you be dutifully obedient to all that He shows you, as a declaration of your commitment to Him, no matter where He leads. Each individual must both unlock and open the door to their soul temple and invite their Redeemer in! For your Messiah says. . .
Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears My voice and opens the door, I will come in to him and dine with him, and he with Me. To him who overcomes I will grant to sit with Me on My seat of power, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His seat of power. Revelation 3:20