Stunning Historical Evidence
But all things that are exposed are made manifest by the LIGHT, for whatever makes manifest is LIGHT. Ephesians 5:13
Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and comes down from the FATHER OF LIGHTS, with whom there is no variation or shadow of turning [full sun, full stars, and full moon]. James 1:17
But the path of the just is as the shining LIGHT, that shines more and more unto the perfect day. The way of the wicked is as darkness: they know not at what they stumble. Proverbs 4:18
… A month in law, is a lunar month . . . unless otherwise expressed… In legal proceedings, the word ‘months,’ means lunar months …” Stroud’s Judicial Dictionary (of Great Britain), 1903 Edition, p. 1221.
Lunar Sabbath Quotes (from the assorted pages of history)
“The changes in the calendric position of the weekly religious rest day have been few from pre-historic times to the present day. The Sabbath which came down to the Jews from pre-historic [prior to Moses] times was the seventh day of the lunar week. The lunar week and the lunar month gave the simplest form of time division to early man . . . Moon and month meant the same thing. The division of the month into four weeks of seven days . . . and the weekly division begun again at the time of the next new moon. The change from the lunar week to the seven-day week running continuously through the year, while a momentous change, was unrecorded. The use of two styles of weeks seems to have existed together, and the more modern seven-day week slowly, but finally, supplanted its ancient but inexact competitor. The lunar week was simple and serviceable . . . When the continuous seven-day week was generally accepted, then it was linked with the past, as we now date events before Christ by a scale unknown to the people and historians of those times. . . The lunar Sabbath was succeeded by the seven-day weekly Sabbath without confusion, and the mention of the Sabbath in Exodus 31:13 and elsewhere, may be taken to refer to the lunar day.” Sunday the World’s Rest Day, “The Sabbath, the Day Which Divine Love Established and Human Love Must Preserve,” Theodore Gilman, p. 479. Published for the New York Sabbath Committee, Doubleday, Page and Company, New York, 1916.
With the destruction of the Temple (A.D. 70) the Sadducees disappeared altogether, leaving the regulation of all Jewish affairs in the hands of the Pharisees. Henceforth, Jewish life was regulated by the Pharisees; the whole history of Judaism was reconstructed from the Pharisaic point of view, and a new aspect was given to the Sanhedrin of the past. A new chain of tradition supplanted the older priestly tradition (Abot 1:1). Pharisaism shaped the character of Judaism and the life and thought of the Jew for all the future. “Pharisees,” The Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol 9, [1901-1906 ed.], p. 666.Pharasaism became Talmudism . . . [but] the spirit of the ancient Pharisee survives unaltered. When the Jew . . . studies the Talmud, he is actually repeating the arguments used in the Palestinian academies. . . . The spirit of the [Pharisees’] doctrine has remained quick and vital. Louis Finklestein, The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of their Faith, [Jewish Publication Society of America], Vol. 4, p. 1332.
“Several customs which prevailed during the age between the Exodus of the Israelites and the resurrection of Christ had so completely changed by the seventeenth Christian century that the translators of the “Authorized Version” of the English Bible were not able to perceive some important truths taught in the Greek version of the Old Testament and the Greek New Testament. Unseen truth would not be clearly translated into the English Bible. The student, who of necessity was limited in his studies to the English version would not be able to see more truth than was expressed in the English version. . . ibid
Second – Since the Jews for more than sixteen centuries have been observing a Saturday Sabbath, and since Christians have been for more than eighteen centuries having a fixed Sunday Sabbath, it is only reasonable to expect most Sabbath writers to try and interpret all Bible Sabbath teachings on the theory of fixed septenary cycles. But the noted Rabbi Hirsch believes and teaches that “The old (Jewish) Sabbath had no connection with a fixed [cycling] week.” ibid
Third – The passing out of sight of the old Bible lunar calendar and the now almost universal effort to interpret the Bible upon the basis of solar calendars . . . ibid
Sixth – The losing sight of the use of uncounted days in the Bible calendar. . . Because of the failure to note the above mentioned difficulties it has become quite difficult so to write or teach as to be clearly understood about the Scriptural Sabbaths.” Sunday the World’s Rest Day, The Sabbath-The Lord’s Day, by Rev. Samuel W. Gamble, D.D. p. 81-82. Published for the New York Sabbath Committee, Doubleday, Page and Company, New York, 1916.
It is the proclamations attributed to Constantine, Emperor of Rome in A.D. 321, at the Council of Nicea, for which the Easter Controversy was set afire, and was the basis for which the calendar of Creation, its New Moons, Sabbaths, and Feast Days were all done away with.
“At the Council of Nice [Nicea] the last thread was snapped which connected Christianity to its parent stock. The festival of Easter had up till now been celebrated for the most part at the same time as the Jewish Passover, and indeed upon the days calculated and fixed by the Synhedrion [Sanhedrin] in Judea for its celebration; but in future its observance was to be rendered altogether independent of the Jewish calendar, “For it is unbecoming beyond measure that on this holiest of festivals we should follow the customs of the Jews. Henceforward, let us have nothing in common with this odious people; our Savior has shown us another path. It would indeed be absurd if the Jews were able to boast that we are not in a position to celebrate the Passover without the aid of their rules.” These remarks are attributed to the Emperor Constantine . . . [and became] the guiding principle of the Church, which was now to decide the fate of the Jews [and their original time-measuring system]. Heinrich Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. II, pp. 563-564.
The details in the Creed of Emperor Constantine, as recited by the Constantinople Church below reveals how it was that the entire Tanakh (OT) containing the Torah (law), the Hebrew calendar of Scripture with its New Moons, the Sabbaths, and yearly sacred Feast Days of YAHUAH were denounced and relegated to the trash bin, right along with all things Hebrew (Jewish) during their Roman captivity. It was Constantine who had first demanded full cooperation of the church with its bishop’s, cardinals, and teachers. All of which were appointed by him. Then succinctly, all of his empire were required to submit to his new Christian religion. It is this Creed that boldly identifies that the Torah and all its teachings had not ended at the time of our Messiah’s Crucifixion, but were eliminated by Constantine through a legislated decree 300 years later. Constantine’s Creed is the forgotten foundation of all Christian churches. It contains the DNA of the Roman mother church, which is found in all of her unsuspecting daughters who denounce the Torah, and all of the ancient Hebrew calendar model requirements for celebrating New Moon’s, lunar Sabbath’s, and the seven Feast Days, in favor of all things Roman. Might this subject have some connection to the Mark of the Beast?
“I renounce all customs, rites, legalisms, unleavened breads and sacrifices of lambs of the Hebrews, and all the other feasts of the Hebrews, sacrifices, prayers, aspirations, purifications, sanctifications, and propitiations, and fasts and New Moons, and Sabbaths, and superstitions, and hymns and chants, and observances, and synagogues. Absolutely everything Jewish, every [Torah] Law, rite and custom and if afterwards I shall wish to deny and return to Jewish superstition, or shall be found eating with Jews, or feasting with them, or secretly conversing and condemning the Christian religion instead of openly confuting them and condemning their vain faith, then let the trembling of Cain and the leprosy of Gehazi cleave to me, as well as the legal punishments to which I acknowledge myself liable. And may I be an anathema in the world to come, and may my soul be set down with Satan and the devils.” (Stefano Assemani, Acta Sanctorium Martyrum Orientalium at Occidentalium, Vol. 1, Rome 1748, page 105)
The Quartodecimen and the Great Passover/Easter Controversy
At the end of time the critical issue to stir up hostility from the religious leaders and demonic agencies will be the return of Yahuah’s obedient to the Creator’s preordained astro-luni-solar time-system. These will identify that the shamayim (heavens) declare the exaltation of Yahuah and is profoundly connected to the Messiah’s prophetic fulfillment of His seven part ministration, which commenced at His first coming and continues until He returns in the clouds.
The heated conflict will increase as the Sabbath is demonstrated to be reckoned according to the count from the full New Moon along with all the sacred set-apart Feast Days, including Passover. This will be what creates the great conflict between Rome and the elect just as it did during the Great Easter Controversy, which began in the 2nd century A.D. and for the most part ended in the 4th century.
The issue of those early days will be repeated as Rome seeks once again to stamp out and destroy from the face of the earth all the modern Quartodecimen (Fourteener) schismatics (this is the name dubbed by the Romans on the Natsarim). This is the name recorded by Eusebius that represented all those who refused to celebrate Passover on any day other than the 14th day as counted from the full New Moon, nor were they willing to call Passover, “Easter.” It is this issue which identifies that the calendar of the ancient Hebrews, as well as the Messiah and His obedient followers, continued to be the celestial astro-luni-solar calendar of Adam, Noah, Abraham and Moses. Simply put, in our Messiah’s day Israel did not follow the planetary calendar, as Rome would have us believe. The Easter Controversy is the ostentatious pivotal event for which the Roman planetary Sunday as the first day, was forever tied to the Resurrection of the Messiah, causing Saturday to appear to be the seventh-day of the planetary week in Scripture.
The question relating to the observance of Easter [Passover], which was agitated in the time of Anicetus and Poly carp, and afterwards in that of Victor, was still undecided. It was one of the principal reasons for convoking the council of Nicea, being the most important subject to be considered after the Arian controversy. It appears that the churches of Syria and Mesopotamia continued to follow the custom of the Jews, and celebrated Easter on the fourteenth day of the moon, whether falling on Sunday or not. A Historical View of the Council of Nice [4th century A.D.], p. 22, translated by Isaac Boyle, D.D. New York: Thomas N. Staintford, 637 Broadway, 1856.
There was a considerable discussion raised about this time, in consequence of a difference of opinion respecting the observance of the paschal [Passover] season. The churches of all Asia, guided by a remoter tradition, supposed that they ought to keep the fourteenth day of the moon for the festival of the Savior’s Passover, in which day the Jews were commanded to kill the paschal lamb; and it was incumbent on them, at all times, to make an end of the fast on this day, on whatever day of the [Roman] week it should happen to fall. The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius Pamphilus, Bishop of Caesarea, in Palestine [4th century A.D.], translated by Christian Frederick Cruse, D.D., Tenth Edition, Chapter 23, p. 207. 1850.
But notwithstanding the decision of the council [of Nicaea] there were some Quartodecimens, as they were termed; who remained pertinaciously attached to the celebration of Easter [meaning Passover] on the fourteenth of the moon, and among others the Audeans, schismatics of Mesopotamia. They found fault with the council, reproachfully remarking, that this was the first time that the ancient tradition [of properly locating Passover by the moon], through compliance for Constantine, had been departed from. A Historical View of the Council of Nice [4th century A.D.], p. 23, translated by Isaac Boyle, D.D. New York: Thomas N. Staintford, 637 Broadway, 1856.
Rome would not stand for such disharmony in calendation or with regard to her neo-holidays, as they wanted no connection to the Jews. Thus, Rome put forth her first edict as early as the 2nd Century A.D. Victor, Bishop of Rome, commanded that all Christians under his jurisdiction must celebrate Easter upon the first Sunday of the Roman calendar, after the full moon that followed the vernal equinox. This was to ensure that Easter would never occur upon the Passover and its Jewish astro-luni-solar calendar.
The early Christians from the Roman East would have none of it and refused to comply. But by the 3rd Century A.D., at the Council of Nicaea, Constantine the Great set forth a decree that all must comply or die. Some complied, but many died for the truth as they knew their Messiah was both the promise and the fulfillment of the Passover typology defined in the Torah, the Old Testament Scripture. Thus, the Creator’s calendar was stricken from the minds of the people as they were forced to comply to Rome’s artificial planetary wall calendar, named after her gods, with its weeks that cycled without end and divorced from the cycles of the moon.
The autumn set-apart Feast Days continue to be prophetic astro-luni-solar markers of the final events yet to come, as they will be fulfilled in real time by the same Messiah, our Redeemer and Deliverer. As the restoration work of mankind continues in the courts above, it is the shamayim, the sun, moon, and stars that declare and define the ever continual worship rhythm of the Most High.
The monumental outcome that the Easter Controversy had on our modern calendar is how it singly determined to the untrained eye and the ignorant of history’s past, that the Scriptural seventh-day Sabbath is “Saturday.” This was accomplished simply by ensuring that every year Easter occurs on Sunday the first day of the new Roman planetary week cycle, and by extension making Saturday of the same week cycle, the seventh-day. Yet, it had never been so, according to Scripture.
“The long-term effect was that ‘Easter Sunday’ entered the Christian paradigm as ‘The Day of Christ’s Resurrection.’ The corollary to this realignment of time calculation was that the day preceding Easter Sunday, Saturday, became forever after ‘The True Bible Sabbath.’ This is the true significance of Constantine’s ‘Sunday law’ and it laid the foundation for the modern assumption that a continuous weekly cycle has always existed.” eLaine Vornholt & Laura Lee Vorholt-Jones, Calendar Fraud, “Biblical Calendar Outlawed.”
“. . . the week of seven days was connected with the lunar month, of which it is, approximately, a fourth . . .“ The Jewish Encyclopedia, “Week”
The following quote compares Roman time to astro-luni-solar time by giving three pieces of information. First it gives the Roman date of the month, the day of the Roman cycling week, and the lunar date as counted from the New Moon. The Nones of November is the same as November 5, which fell on the day of Venus (Friday). It was the 24th lunar phase that corresponded with this Roman date, making it the Second Day after the third Sabbath of the month.
In the consulship of Claudius and Paternus, on the Nones of [5th] November, on the day of Venus [Friday], and on the 24th day of the lunar month, Leuces placed [this memorial] to her very dear daughter Severa, and to Thy Holy Spirit. She died [at the age] of 55 years, and 11 months [and] 10 days. The date of this inscription is Friday, November 5, 269 A.D. Inscriptions Christianae Urbis Romae, E. Diehl, Vol. 1, Part 1, p. 18., No. 11; Sunday in Roman Paganism, Robert L. Odom, p. 122.
. . . Shabbat [weekly Sabbath] originally arose from the lunar cycle, containing four weeks ending in Sabbath, plus one or two additional unreckoned days per [lunar] month. The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia: An Authorative and Popular Presentation of Jews and Judaism Since the Earliest Times. Volume 10 Cohen, Simon (1943 p 482-483.). Week. In Landman, Isaac.
. . . The Hebrew Sabbath (i.e. Creation Sabbath) was originally a Sabbathon . . . it was celebrated at intervals of seven days, corresponding with the changes in the moon’s phases . . . Encyclopaedia Biblica, 1899, p. 4180.
The Hebrew month is a lunar month and the quarter of this period – one phase of the moon – appears to have determined the week of seven days. Encyclopaedia Biblica, 1899, p. 4780.
And then the moon, ever punctual to mark the times, [as] an everlasting sign: It is the moon that signals the Feasts, a luminary that wanes after being full. The month derives its name from hers. She waxes wonderfully in her phases, a banner of the hosts on high, shining in the vault of heaven [the shamayim].” Ecclesiasticus 43:6-8, c.a. 19-180 B.C.
At first the New Moon festival was not counted among the seven days of the week; after 28 days had elapsed [7 days x 4 weeks], one or two days were intercalated as New Moon days, whereupon a new cycle of four weeks began, so that the Sabbath was a movable festival…. Later the week and the Sabbath became fixed [to the Roman cycling planetary week]; and this gradually resulted in taking away from the New Moon festival its popular importance. . . The Jewish Encyclopedia, Pastoral Feast.
The [early] Hebrews employed lunar seven-day weeks, which ended with special observances on the seventh day, but none the less were tied to the moon’s course. Rest Days, Hutton Webster, p. 254-255
The weeks do not continue in a regular cycle regardless of the moon. Each month has four weeks, the beginning with the New Moon. I have no doubt that this was the old Hebrew system. Babylonian Menologies and the Semitic Calendars, p. 89.
It is powerfully urged by the believers in a primitive Sabbath, that we find from time immemorial the knowledge of a week of 7 days among all nations — Egyptians, Arabians, Indians — in a word, all the nations of the East, have in all ages made use of this week of 7 days, for which it is difficult to account without admitting that this knowledge was derived from the common ancestors [Adam and Eve] of the human race. Among all early nations the lunar months were the readiest large divisions of time. . . In order to connect the reckoning by weeks with the lunar month, we find that all ancient nations observed some peculiar solemnities to mark the day of the New Moon. Accordingly, in the Mosaic law the same thing was also enjoined (Numbers 10:10; 28:11, etc.), though it is worthy of remark that, while particular observances are here enjoined, the idea of celebrating the New Moon in some way is alluded to as if already familiar to them. In other parts of the Bible, we find the Sabbaths and New Moons continually spoken of in conjunction; as (Isaiah 1:13, etc.) the division of time by weeks prevailed all over the East, from the earliest periods among the Assyrians, Arabs, & Egyptians. It was found among the tribes in the interior of Africa….The Peruvians counted their months by the moon, their half-months by the increase and decrease of the moon . . . without having any particular names for the week days. The Popular and Critical Bible Encyclopedia 1904. Vol. 3, p. 1497.
“The decline of the eight-day week coincided with the expansion of Rome . . . The astrological and Christian [planetary – Sun. – Sat] seven-day weeks that had just been [re] introduced into Rome were also becoming increasingly popular. There is evidence indicating that the Roman eight-day week and those two seven-day cycles were used simultaneously for some time. However, the coexistence of two weekly rhythms that were entirely out of phase with one another obviously could not be sustained for long. One of them clearly had to give way. As we all know, it was the eight-day week that soon disappeared from the pages of history forever [along with the original lunar seven-day week].” Eviatar Zerubavel, The Seven-day Circle, p. 46.
The connection of the Sabbath with lunar phases, however, was (later) discarded by the Israelites . . . The New Schaff-Herzog Religious Encyclopedia, p. 135-136.
. . . the Jewish festivals being regulated solely by the moon, may fall on any day of the [modern Roman] week. Oxford English Dictionary, 1971 Edition, Vol. 2, Pentecost.
It is certain that the Jews celebrated . . . Pentecost . . . without regard in either case to the day of the [modern Roman] week. Oxford English Dictionary, 1971 Edition, Vol. 2, Pentecost.
The resurrection of Christ [Messiah] is recorded to have taken place on the second day of the Passover, being that year the first day of the week. Seven weeks after that (and so again on the first day of the week) was the Feast of Weeks or Pentecost. In commemoration of this, these two Christian festivals are always held on the first day of the week (Sunday), and so in most cases do not coincide with the Jewish festivals. Oxford English Dictionary, 1971 Edition, Vol. 2, Pentecost.
The Greek Church had no such facilities of examining the authentic records . . . till the Julian Calendar had been adopted; still the true date of the crucifixion was less disguised by the Greeks than that of the nativity, but he [Constantine] wished, almost the necessity, of so keeping Easter as to make the day of crucifixion Friday, and of the resurrection Sunday, caused differences of opinion that led to persecution and bloodshed. Mazzaroth, The Constellations, Frances Rolleston, p. 133. Rivingtons, London, 1862.
The modern seven-day week came into use during the early imperial period, after the Julian calendar came into effect, apparently stimulated by immigration from the Roman East. For a while it coexisted alongside the old 8-day nundinal cycle, and fasti are known which show both cycles. It [the modern cycling week] was finally given official status by Constantine in A.D. 321. Roman Calendar Encyclopedia, Days of the Week.
“The Sunday law of Constantine must not be overrated. He enjoined the observance, or rather forbade the public desecration of Sunday, not under the name of Sabbatum [Sabbath] or dies Domini [Lord’s Day], but under its old astrological and heathen title, dies Solis [Sunday], familiar to all his subjects, so that the law was as applicable to the worshipers of Hercules, Apollo, and Mithras, as to the Christians. There is no reference whatever in his law either to the fourth commandment or to the resurrection of Christ.” Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, Vol. III, p. 380.
“How such a law would further the designs of Constantine, it is not difficult to discover. It would confer a special honor upon the [Roman] festivals of the Christian church, and it would grant a slight boon to the pagans themselves. In fact, there is nothing in this edict which might not have been written by a pagan. The law does honor to the pagan deity whom Constantine had adopted as his special patron god, Apollo, or the Sun. The very name of the day lent itself to this ambiguity. The term Sunday (Dies Solis) was in use among Christians as well as pagan.” J. Westbury-Jones, Roman and Christian Imperialism, p. 210.
Even after Constantine’s edict about Sunday, it took another generation or two for the seven-day week to catch on throughout the empire. The 24-hour system took longer, having to wait until the invention of the mechanical clock in the Middle Ages by monks anxious to observe with precision their canonical hours. Before this, people marked the passage of time during the night by using the stars and during the day either by eyeballing the sun or by listening to public announcements of the time. Calendar, David Ewing Duncan, p. 47, New York, Avon Books, 1998.
“Since the second century A.D. there had been a divergence of opinion about the date for celebrating the paschal [Passover/crucifixion] anniversary of the Lord’s passion (death, burial, and resurrection). Ibid
The most ancient practice appears to have been to observe the fourteenth [Passover date as counted from the new moon], fifteenth, and sixteenth days of the lunar month regardless of the day of the [Julian – planetary] week these dates might fall on from year to year. Ibid
The bishops of Rome, desirous of enhancing the observance of Sunday as a church festival, ruled that the annual celebration should always be held on the Friday, Saturday, and Sunday following the fourteenth day of the lunar month. . . This controversy lasted almost two centuries, until Constantine intervened in behalf of the Roman bishops and outlawed the other group.” R.L. Odom, Sunday in Roman Paganism, p. 188.
“The parishes of all Asia, as from an older tradition, held that the fourteenth day of the moon, on which day the Jews were commanded to sacrifice the lamb, should be observed as the feast of the Saviour’s Passover . . . whatever day of the [Julian – planetary] week it should happen to be. But it was not the custom of the churches in the rest of the world . . .” Michael I. Roostovtzeff, The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, p. 456.
It was only in Alexandria [Egypt] that three distinct practices that had evolved quite independently of the Chaldean planetary theory – an astronomical practice of arranging the seven planets in a certain invariable order, a mathematical practice of subdividing the daily cycle into twenty-four hours, and an astrological theory known as the doctrine of “Chronocratores” – were nevertheless integrated with it so as to produce the astrological seven-day week in its final form. This cycle is therefore the product of the successful Hellenistic fusion of astronomy, astrology, and mathematics, as well as the great cultural heritage of Egypt, Babylonia, and Greece. The Seven Day Circle: The History and Meaning of the Week, Eviatar Zerubavel, New York: The Free Press, 1985. p.14.
The Babylonians, at a very early period, divided their months into seven-day cycles . . . Ancient History, Hutton Webster, p. 20.
The Sabbath depending, in Israel’s nomadic period, upon the observation of the phases of the moon, it could not, accordingly be a fixed day [meaning a fixed planetary day of the modern Roman cycling week]. The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History. Edited by Isidore Singer, Cyrus Adler. Volume 10, p. 590.
A continuous seven-day cycle that runs throughout history paying no attention whatsoever to the moon and its phases is a distinctly Jewish invention. Moreover, the dissociation of the seven-day week from nature [Creation] has been one of the most significant contributions of Judaism to civilization. Like the invention of the mechanical clock some 1,500 years later, it facilitates the establishment of what Lewis Mumford identified as “mechanical periodicity,” thus essentially increasing the distance between human beings and nature [Creation] http://www.thecreatorscalendar.com/lunar-sabbaths-stunning-historical-evidence/. Quasi [lunar] weeks and [continuous] weeks actually represent two fundamentally distinct modes of temporal organization of human life, the former involving partial adaptation to nature [Creation], and the latter stressing total emancipation from it. The invention of the continuous week was therefore one of the most significant breakthroughs in human beings attempts to break away from being prisoners of nature [and from under the Creator’s law] and create a social world of their own. The Seven Day Circle: the History and Meaning of the Week, Eviator Zerubavel, The Free Press, New York, 1985, p. 11.
Most theologians and some scholars assume that mainstream Jewish society, at the time of Jesus [the Messiah] . . .was practicing a fixed seven-day week which was the same as the modern fixed [cycling planetary designations] seven-day week. This is extremely doubtful. The change, from a lunar to a fixed week, was brought about by the power and influence of Rome. As long as the Nazarenes held power in Jerusalem, all Roman practices and customs, including that of the consecutive week, were held at bay. Shawui Sabbath: Ancient Sabbath Observance
In the years following Clement of Alexandria’s time (A.D. 150-215), an ominous change started to take place that was to radically change the Christian concept of the Sabbath. This intimate connection between the week and the month was soon dissolved. It is certain that the week soon followed a development of its own, and it became the custom — without paying any regard to the days of the month (i.e. the luni-solar month) . . . so that the New Moon no longer coincided with the first day of the month. Then, on page 4179 of the same encyclopedia, we read: “The introduction . . . of the custom of celebrating the Sabbath every 7th day, irrespective of the relationship of the day to the moon’s phases, led to a complete separation from the ancient view of the Sabbath. . . Encyclopaedia Biblica, 1903 p. 5290.
We shall be taken for Persians [Mithraists], perhaps . . . The reason for this, I suppose, is that it is known that we pray towards the east . . . Likewise, if we devote the day of the Sun to festivity (from a far different reason from Sun worship), we are in a second place from those who devote the day of Saturn, themselves also deviating by way of a Jewish custom of which they are ignorant. Tertullian, Apologia.
It should be noted that the oldest dated Christian inscription to employ a planetary designation [Sunday thru Saturday, unbroken weekly cycles] belongs to the year 269 A.D. Inscriptiones Christianae urbis Romae, ed. De Rossi, 1861, i, No. 1.
The present Jewish calendar was fixed [changed to the Roman planetary weekly cycle] in the fourth century. Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Letter by Louis Finkelstein to Dr. L. E. Froom, Feb. 20, 1939.
The week, which was based on the Mosaic Law that requires rest from labor every seventh day, was not recognized in the calendar of the ancient Greeks, and did not appear in the Roman calendar until about 400 A.D. Funk and Wagnall’s Standard Reference Encyclopedia, 1961, Vol. 5, p. 1662 “Calendar”
Each New Moon was celebrated with a fast. Jewish Family Celebrations, p. 35.
. . . The sacred festival of the new moon, which people give notice of with trumpets, and the day of fasting, on which abstinence from all meats and drinks is enjoined . . . Philo Book 26, p. 159
Some Dead Sea Scrolls, such as 4Q325, 4Q326, 4Q327, and 4Q394, contain fixed week calendar systems which may represent an early attempted transition from the more ancient lunar phase week toward the modern fixed week made mandatory by Rome a few centuries later. Dead Sea Scroll fragments also preserve a luni-solar calendar, along with new and dark moons which are unnecessary if they only kept the purely solar calendar of 364 days. [Author Unknown]
. . . There was a distinct break between the Old Testament requirements . . . dealing with the Sabbath worship . . . They [Rome] wanted to show that Christianity [her brainchild] was distinct from Judaism . . . The other thing that we should remember, too, is that our calendar that we follow, including Seventh-day Adventists, is not only a calendar that was devised by the Catholic Church, but also it is a calendar that’s based upon the solar year, not the lunar year. The Jewish calendar that was observed in the time of Christ [Messiah] follows a lunar [astro-luni-solar] calendar . . . So the great irony is that even the Seventh-day Adventists themselves are not worshiping on exactly the same Sabbath day as the Jews of the time of Christ, because it is several days off . . . Patrick Madrid, Catholic Apologist, EWTN, Global Catholic Radio Network, Jan 5, 2006
But to the seventh-day of the week He [Yahuah] has assigned the greatest festivals, those of the longest duration, at the periods of the equinox both vernal and autumnal in each year; appointing two festivals for these two epochs, each lasting seven days; the one which takes place in the spring being for the perfection of what is being sown, and the one which falls in autumn being a feast of thanksgiving for the bringing home of all the fruits which the trees have produced. F.H. Colson’s translation of Philo’s THE DECALOGUE XXX (159)
Referring to the quote above: Let’s look carefully at what Philo is saying. “But to the seventh-day of the week He has assigned the greatest festivals.” In other words the greatest (longest) festivals have been assigned to the seventh-day of the week [Sabbath the 15th], which starts the festival and lasts for seven days. We know both of these seven-day feasts begin on the Sabbath the 15th. Philo goes on to say that each of these two months (1st and 7th) should receive a special honor of one sacred day of festival, for the purpose of refreshing and clearing the mind with its holiday.
Notice he did not say they would receive two sacred days of festivals, but one, the 15th. To prove the seventh-day of the week is the same as the 15th, elsewhere Philo states, “Again the beginning of this feast is appointed for the fifteenth day of the month (or seventh day of the week) on account of the reason which has already been mentioned respecting the Spring season might receive special honor of one sacred day of festival.”
In other words, Philo is saying the weekly Sabbath highlights these two feasts on the 15th of each year. This is evidence that the Sabbaths are counted according to the lunar calendar, because there is no way the [modern] continuous weekly cycle with its Sabbath can begin these two festivals on the 15th in both the 1st and 7th month of each year consistently. This only works within the parameters of a lunar month and its count to each of four Sabbaths, and not with the Gregorian calendar with its continuous weekly cycle. Refer to article, Passover to Tabernacles Calendar Challenge.
The term “Menorah” means “moon’s light,” as it is derived from “mene” (moon) plus “ore”(אור -light) equals Menorah.
For example, Helius is Chammah and Shemesh [meaning the sun]. Selene [G#4582 – brilliant moon] is Yareach, or Ha-labanah [meaning the moon], and hence is also called mene. The ‘month’ is called ‘the mene’ and the moon is called ‘mene,’ as it also is in Greek, because of the [lunar] month. The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis, First Book Section 1, Part 16, Epiphanius Against the Pharisees 2:3
And then the moon, ever punctual to mark the times, [as] an everlasting sign: It is the moon that signals the Feasts, a luminary that wanes after being full. The month derives its name from hers. She waxes wonderfully in her phases, a banner of the hosts on high, shining in the vault of heaven [the shamayim].” Ecclesiasticus 43:6-8, c.a. 190-180 B.C.
Astro-luni-solar Calendar Quotes
The following two quotes were copied from the pages of a book removed from their binding. These were part of the Grace Amadon Collection discovered hidden in the vault at Andrews University. The name of the book was available, but not the author’s name.
The month of the Jews was, as we have said, a lunar month, and extended from one appearing of the new moon to another. The time elapsing between one astronomical new moon and another consists of 29.5 days. . . But since the month consisted of entire days, they counted it with pretty regular alternation as 29 or 30 days. A month of 30 days was called a full month . . . if it had only 29 days, it was called an imperfect month . . . The Jewish month could never have more than 30 days, and never fewer than 29. Chronological and Geographic Basis of the History of Jesus Christ, p. 5, Section 7.
But had the ancient Jews, and particularly at the time of Jesus [Messiah], such lunar months and years with an intercalary month, as the Talmud asserts? The great majority of chronologists, amongst whom are Wurm, Ideler, Wieseler, V. Gumpach, and Winer, return an affirmative answer to this question. There have not been wanting, however, those who maintain the contrary, and claim for the Jews of the age of Jesus the reckoning by solar months and years. This view finds an advocate particularly in Seyffarth, in a treatise (Chronology Sacra, p. 43 ff.) which has the special object of vindicating the New Testament chronology of the Fathers. Among the assertions of the Fathers [Amos, Matthew, Mark, and Luke], there is one to the effect that the obscuration of the sun on the day of the crucifixion of Jesus [the Messiah] was due to an astronomical [solar] eclipse. To maintain this position, solar months must be ascribed to the Jews; for if they reckoned by lunar months, and these months began with the new moon, the 15th Nisan must fall at the time of the full moon, in which an eclipse of the sun is impossible, since this can take place only at the time of a new moon. Seyffarth maintains that the Sanhedrin of Tiberias, which drew up the present Jewish calendar about A.D. 200, invented the lunar months and years, and got them surreptitiously introduced into the books of Jewish tradition. To this it must be objected that the Sanhedrin, if it had really practiced this deception, would assuredly have represented this newly-invented calendar as handed down in the lump by tradition. But this is not the case; on the contrary, the calendar of the modern Jews introduced by the Sanhedrin is in many respects different from that described in tradition, especially in the Mishna Rosh hashana . . . Chronological and Geographic Basis of the History of Jesus Christ, p. 7, Section 9.
The above quote attempts an honest look at historical Hebrew time reckoning by revealing an apparent paradox. But dont be misled to believe there are only two options as presented: 1) Solar months; or 2) Lunar months that are based wholly upon a dark or crescent New Moon, simple because this is a modern Jewish tradition. For the weight of evidence found in Scripture and some historical documents including the Dead Sea Scrolls ascribe the true New Moon to have been the Full Moon after all. This being the case, at the time of the crucifixion, which occurred on Passover the 14th of the first lunar month of Abib (Nissan), would have naturally then transpired at the time of a dark conjunction lunar phase, which is necessary for a solar eclipse to have occurred, as is well documented in Scripture and History. On this most notable day in all of history, the commencement of all the prophetic events, is it not highly probable given the facts, that the Most High magnified the length and intensity of that epic event to bring attention to the beneficiary GIFT of His Son for mankind? Refer to study, Sun was Darkened from the Sixth to the Ninth Hour.
The very fact that both the solar and lunar years have differing lengths requiring intercalation (the process of adding extra days or months, respectively, during leap years) was used by Abraham to prove that nature itself was not to be worshiped, but that there was a Supreme Being superior to nature that was its Creator.
This his opinion was derived from the irregular phenomena that were visible both at land and sea, as well as those that happen to the sun and moon, and all the heavenly bodies, thus: “If [said he]these bodies had power of their own, they would certainly take care of their own regular motions; but since they do not preserve such regularity, they made it plain, that in so far as they co-operate to our advantage, they do it not of their own abilities, but as they are subservient to Him that commands them; to whom alone we ought justly to offer our honor and thanksgiving.” Antiquities of the Jews, Book I, chapter VII, verse 1.
It was this very teaching which according to Josephus, was a contributing fact of in Abraham’s decision to leave Ur: “For which doctrines, when the Chaldeans and other people of Mesopotamia raised a tumult against him, he thought fit to leave the country; and at the command, and by the assistance of God, he came and lived in the land of Canaan.” Antiquities of the Jews, Book I, chapter VII, verse 1.
In the mid-1st century B.C. Julius Caesar invited Sosigenes, an Alexandrian astronomer, to advise him about the reform of the calendar, and Sosigenes decided that the only practical step was to abandon the lunar calendar altogether. Months must be arranged on a seasonal basis, and a tropical [solar] year used, as in the Egyptian calendar. The Julian Calendar, Encyclopedia Britannica.
Julius Caesar’s conquest of Egypt in the 1st century BC introduced this planetary week to the Roman Empire, which still used the Etruscan eight-day week. Since the astrological and Jewish weeks were both seven days long, by the 1st century AD the day of Saturn had become identified with the Jewish Sabbath. After Christianity became the state religion, the Church integrated both cycles to produce our present week, used also by Jews and Muslims. (Sarah Belle Dougherty in her book review of The Seven Day Circle: The History and Meaning of the Week by Eviatar Zerubavel, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1989. As published in Sunrise magazine, August/September 2003; copyright © 2003 Theosophical University Press)
The current [Roman] calendar is not without defects, and reforms are still being proposed. . . the seven–day week and the different lengths of months are unsatisfactory to some. Clearly, if the calendar could have all festivals and all rest days fixed on the same dates every year, as in the original Julian calendar, this arrangement would be more convenient, and two general schemes have been put forward the International Fixed Calendar and the World Calendar. The International Fixed Calendar is essentially a perpetual Gregorian calendar, in which the year is divided … Encyclopedia Britannica, Modern Schemes for Reform http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/89368/calendar/60234/Modern-schemes-for-reform
A measure of time corresponding to the period of revolution of the moon. . . The primitive calendar month of ancient nations began on the day of New Moon or the day after . . . Among many peoples of antiquity, however, it was from a very early period found desirable that the calendar year should contain an integral number of the smaller periods used in ordinary reckoning. Hence the true [lunar] months were superseded by a series of twelve periods each having a fixed number of days (on the average one-twelfth of the number in the calendar year), and thus having no relation to the changes of the moon; but this artificial period continued to bear the name of month. The Oxford English Dictionary, 1971
A space or period of time constituting a division of the year. Month, originally signified the time of one revolution of the moon, a lunation, or the period from one change . . . of the moon with the sun to another. . .This is the periodical [synodical] month, or as we generally call it, the lunar month. In the year there are twelve solar months, and thirteen lunar months. American Dictionary of the English Language, Noah Webster, 1828 edition.
In the Diaspora the New Moon came to occupy a secondary position in contrast to the Sabbath; the prohibition against work and the carrying on of commerce was lifted, and the New Moon, although still celebrated by means of increased offerings, soon was reduced to the rank of a minor of half holiday. Its importance was confined to the fact that it remained of great value and necessity for the fixing of the festivals. Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, “New Moon,” Vol. 8, p. 171.
Maimonides and most other Jewish chronologists agree that the modern Jewish calendar is based upon the “mean motions of the sun and moon, the true having been set aside.” Maimonides, Kiddusch Ha-hodesch, Tr. Mahler, Wein, 1889.
Intercalations [of the calendar] were determined at meetings of a special commission of the Sanhedrin. But Constantius, following the tyrannous precedents of Hadrian, prohibited the holding of such meetings . . . How difficult the fixing of the annual calendar consequently became may be judged from an enigmatic letter addressed to Raba . . . and preserved in the Talmud . . . Almost the whole Diaspora depended for the legal observance of the feasts and fasts upon the calendar sanctioned by the Judea Sanhedrin; yet danger threatened the participants in that sanction and the messengers who communicated their decisions to distant congregations. . . . As the religious persecutions continued, Hillel II determined to provide an authorized calendar for all time to come, though by so doing he severed the ties which united the Jews of the Diaspora to their mother country and to the patriarchate. I. Singer and S. Mendelsohn, “Hillel II, www.JewishEncyclopedia.com.
But what of Gentile Believers?
Did this early break-off of the true Nazarenes…also observe a Sabbath cycle?
Early historical records clearly confirm that very early Gentile Christians also kept the same [lunar] Sabbath Calendar as the…Nazarenes. This practice was first changed by Sixtus in 126 A.D. and later officially changed by a royal Roman decree from the emperor Constantine. Observance of the [lunar] Sabbath day was made illegal and observance of a “Sunday” of a FIXED WEEK was made mandatory for all except farmers. Previous to this time the ROMAN SATURDAY was the FIRST DAY OF THE ROMAN WEEK. The veneration of the Sun in the second century A.D. began to pressure Roman culture to change the first day of their week FROM SATURNSDAY TO SUNDAY. (Had the Jews been observing this same Roman calendar at this early date, as some maintain, then their seventh-day Sabbath would have been on FRIDAY which was the traditional seventh-day of this Roman calendar during the first century A.D.). Ibid
In A.D. 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 6673. He promised to rebuild the city, but planning it as a pagan metropolis to be called Aelia Capitolina. A new pagan temple on the ruins of the Second Temple was to be dedicated to Jupiter. In addition, Hadrian abolished circumcision (brit milah), which he, as an avid Hellenist, viewed as mutilation. A Roman coin inscribed Aelia Capitolina was issued in 132. Hadrian’s policies triggered the massive Jewish uprising, led by Bar Kokhba and Akiba ben Joseph. Following the outbreak of the revolt, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain, and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. Roman losses were very heavy, and it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was destroyed.  Roman losses were so heavy that Hadrian’s report to the Roman Senate omitted the customary salutation “I and the legions are well” . Hadrian’s army eventually defeated the revolt however. According to Cassius Dio, during the war 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. After the end of the war, Hadrian continued the religious persecution of Jews, according to the Babylonian Talmud . He attempted to root out Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions, prohibited the Torah law, the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars. The sacred scroll was ceremoniously burned on the Temple Mount. At the former Temple sanctuary, he installed two statues, one of Jupiter, another of himself. In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea, he removed the name from the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina, after the Philistines, the ancient enemies of the Jews. He re-established Jerusalem as the Roman pagan polis of Aelia Capitolina, and Jews were forbidden from entering it. Hadrian from Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia
This change from the luni-solar to a fixed solar calendar occurred in Rome during the repressive measures which were enacted against ALL Jewish customs . . .during the reign of Emperor Hadrian. With the fall of the Nazarene headquarters…at Jerusalem, this new Roman calendar quickly spread throughout ‘Christendom.’ This new calendar not only replaced yearly festival dates such as Passover, but it also revamped the concept of the week and its seventh-day. Iranaeus 2nd Century A.D.
The…calendar was used by ALL the original disciples of Yeshua…This original Nazarene lunar-solar calendar was supplanted by a Roman “planetary week” and calendar in 135 C.E. — when the “Bishops of the Circumcision” were displaced from Jerusalem. This began a three hundred year controversy concerning the TRUE CALENDAR AND CORRECT SABBATH: This [calendar] controversy arose after the exodus of the bishops of the circumcision and has continued until our time.” Epiphanius, HE4, 6, 4.
In the years following Clement of Alexandria’s time, an ominous change started to take place that was to radically change the Christian concept of the Sabbath. This intimate connection, records the Encyclopedia Biblica, between the week and the month was soon dissolved. It is certain that the week soon followed a development of its own, and it became the custom without paying any regard to the days of the month [i.e. the lunar month]. Encyclopedia Biblica, The MacMillan Company, 1899. p. 5290.
“The early Christians [Messiah followers] had at first adopted the Jewish [lunar] seven-day week with its numbered weekdays, but by the close of the third century A.D. this began to give way to the planetary week; and in the fourth and fifth centuries the pagan designations became generally accepted in the western half of Christendom. The use of the planetary names by Christians attests to the growing influence of astrological speculations introduced by converts from paganism.” Rest Days: A Study in Early Law and Morality. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1916, p. 220.
The present Jewish calendar was fixed in the fourth century. Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Letter by Louis Finkelstein to Dr. L. E. Froom, Feb. 20, 1939. Regarding the present Jewish calendar.
“… it appeared an unworthy thing that in the celebration of this most holy feast we should follow the practice of the Jews, who have impiously defiled their hands with enormous sin, and are, therefore, deservedly afflicted with blindness of soul. … Let us then have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd; for we have received from our Savior a different way.” Life of Constantine, Eusebius, Book 3, Chapter 18, [recorded words of Constantine]
A Profession Faith from the Church of Constantinople in the year 325 C.E. Under the Emperor Constantine:
I renounce all customs, rites, legalisms. unleavened breads & sacrifices of lambs of the Hebrews, and all other feasts of the Hebrews, sacrifices, prayers, aspersions, purifications, sanctifications and propitiations and fasts, and new moons, and Sabbaths, and superstitions, and hymns and chants and observances and Synagogues, and the food and drink of The Hebrews; in one word, I renounce everything Jewish, every law, rite and custom and if afterwards I shall wish to deny and return to Jewish superstition, or shall be found eating with The Jews, or feasting with them, or secretly conversing and condemning the Christian religion instead of openly confuting them and condemning their vain faith, then let the trembling of Gehazi cleave to me, as well as the legal punishments to which I acknowledge myself liable. And may I be anathema in the world to come, and may my soul be set down with Satan and the devils. Source: The Conflict Of The Church And The Synagogue Athenaeum, Parks, James, New York, 1974, p. 397-398.
The second half of the above oath is as follows:
I accept all customs, rites, legalism, and feasts of the Romans, sacrifices, prayers, purifications with water, sanctifications by Pontificus Maximus (high priests of Rome), propitiations, and feasts, and the New Sabbath Sol dei (day of the sun), all new chants and observances, and all the foods and drinks of the Romans. In other words, I absolutely accept everything Roman, every new law, rite and custom, of Rome, and the New Roman Religion. A Profession of Faith from the Church of Constantinople in the year 325 C.E. Under the Emperor Constantine
Under the reign of Constantius the persecutions of the Jews reached such a height that . . . the computation of the [astro-luni-solar] calendar [was] forbidden under pain of severe punishment. The Jewish Encyclopedia, Calendar. [Search for Calendar. Select Calendar, History of. The Quote is the last paragraph under the Talmudic Section.
He shall insult the Most High, he shall torment/wear out the righteous ones of the Most High, and he shall attempt to change the calendar and the ordinance Daniel 7:25 (Twentieth Century Knox translation.)
According to the Jews:
Declaring the new month by observation of the new moon, and the new year by the arrival of spring, can only be done by the Sanhedrin. In the time of Hillel II [4th century A. D.], the last President of the Sanhedrin, the Romans prohibited this practice. Hillel II was therefore forced to institute his fixed calendar, thus in effect giving the Sanhedrin’s advance approval to the calendars of all future years.” The Jewish Calendar: Changing the Calendar, www.torah.org.)
The following quote is a most exciting find, as it defines the primary issue for which the Romans pressured the Jews. The Roman powers were hell bent on removing the Jewish calendar model and replacing it with their own Roman calendar YEAR, MONTH WEEK, AND DAYS. Not a unit of time was left out. Although Israel was allowed to utilize a new calculated calendar developed in Babylon for locating Feast Days, it would never be able to harmonize with the worship rhythm of their Creator. While the week contained the required seven days, it had no connection to the required lunar cycle, and no longer was in sync with the true seventh-day Sabbath of Creation, as set forth by the LIGHTS in the shamayim.
“In AD 351-352 Roman persecution flared and the Jews revolted. They were soon crushed. Many Jewish towns were destroyed and decrees issued against the local authorities and against Judaism. The privileges of the head of the Sanhedrin and the freedoms of the Sanhedrin itself were curtailed. Roman pressure to conform “Jewish” TIME to Roman TIME had reached crisis level. ibid
Under this pressure Hillel II agreed to limit the functions of the head of the Sanhedrin, as well as the Sanhedrin itself, with respect to proclaiming the New Moon, setting festival dates, and employing intercalation [inserting the 13th lunar month]. With the decline of the Jewish power-base in Israel, the Jewish community in Babylon had been rising in influence to fill the vacuum. Hillel II published details informing all Jews of the methods of the [new] calculated calendar developed in Babylon. From that time on the Sanhedrin in Judea ceased to function or to maintain calendar experts. Hillel II is thus given the credit for the present fixed Rabbinical calendar, but in reality it originated in Babylon and was just the starting point of the development of the Rabbinical calendar in use today. Encyclopedia Judaica, s.v. “Hillel”.
This last sentence gives new meaning to the Revelation 18:2-4 regarding “Babylon has fallen,” and “com out of her my people.”
The arrangement of the Jewish calendar as used in the time of Christ [the Messiah] is no longer operative. Modern Jews are divided into two classes. The Karaite Jews, whose numbers are small, reject tradition and the Talmud, [claim to] observe their feasts and festivals more nearly with those of Christ’s time as regards the true season, while the larger number of Jews follow the [remodeled] Rabbinical Calendar, the product of Rabbi Hillel and others about 353 A.D., which incorporates into it many of the ancient rules of calculation, but begin their year, and feasts and festivals a month earlier in the season than the Karaites as compared with our Calendar, as we have in 1844 the atonement by the Rabbinical Calendar would be September 23rd, while by the Karaites it was about that time in October. By the Rabbinical calendar the First day of Nisan is always between March 12 and April 11, and is always one of four days, Sunday, Tuesday, Thursday or Saturday the first one after the new moon for that month. Creation Centered in Christ, by H.G. Guinness, D.D., page 276. Also from Approximate Chronology, H. H. Perry, p. 21-22. [Note that both calendar models described are a result of Hillel’s remodeled time-measuring system.]
Sabbath and New Moon (Rosh Chodesh), both periodically recur in the course of the year. The New Moon is still, and the Sabbath originally was, dependent upon the lunar cycle. Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, p. 410.
The nations do their counting with the Sun, but Israel, with the Moon. The Mekilta, a work of Rabbi Yisma’el Merita (2nd century AD).
After the death of Constantine, his sons and others took the reins to bring to fruition what he had begun. By A.D. 358, so much pressure was applied to the Jews that they ultimately gave up their entire calendar and oracles of truth. Thus, the true seventh-day SABBATH of our Creator was lost to the world for 1,700 years. Praise Yahuah, He is now restoring His true calendar to His obedient seekers of truth.
“It was no more possible under Constance to apply the old calendar.” David Sidersky, Astronomical Origin of Jewish Chronology, p. 651.
One faulty “proof” given to support the belief in a Saturday Sabbath is that fact that the word for the seventh-day of the week in many languages is or bears a resemblance to the word “Sabbath.” This too, is explained by Zerubavel:
The Jewish and astrological weeks evolved quite independently of one another. However, given the coincidence of their identical length [of seven days], it was only a matter of time before some permanent correspondence between particular Jewish days and particular planetary days would be made. A permanent correspondence between the Sabbath and “the day of Saturn” was thus established . . . [some time] later than the first century of the present era, Jews even came to name the planet Saturn Shabtai, after the original Hebrew name of the Sabbath, Shabbath. Moreover, as they came into closer contact with Hellenism, their conception of their holy day was evidently affected by the astrological conception of Saturn as a planet that has an overwhelming negative influence (a conception which, incidentally, is still evident even from the association of the English word “saturnine” with a gloomy disposition.) There are traditional Jewish superstitious beliefs about demons and evil spirits that hold full sway on the Sabbath, and an old Jewish legend even links the choice of “the day of Saturn” as the official Jewish rest day with the superstition that it would be an inauspicious day for doing any work anyway! The Seven Day Circle: the History and Meaning of the Week, Eviator Zerubavel, The Free Press, New York, 1985, p. 17.
Zerubavel clearly understands the origins of the ancient Hebrew calendar, as well as the connection to the Creator:
The dissociation of the week from a natural cycle such as the waxing and waning of the moon can be seen as part of a general movement toward introducing a supernatural deity. Not being personified as any particular natural force, the Jewish god was to be regarded as untouched by nature in any way. Accordingly, the day dedicated to this god was to be regarded as part of a divine temporal pattern that transcends even nature itself. That obviously involved dissociating the week from nature and its rhythms. Only by being based on an entirely artificial mathematical rhythm could the Sabbath observance become totally independent of the lunar or any other natural cycle. The Seven Day Circle: the History and Meaning of the Week, Eviator Zerubavel, The Free Press, New York, 1985, p. 11.
The beginning of the month with the appearance of the new moon was–as it is still–of great practical importance among the Hebrews… The earliest appearance of the new moon was long ascertained by direct observation, and authoritatively settled by a commission of the Sanhedrin, and the intelligence then made known to the Jews at large, first by means of fire signals, and later on through special messengers. In the present day, and for many centuries, this very primitive manner of fixing the beginning of the month has given way to a systematic calculation of the latter’s duration, and the Jewish calendar is now constructed on the basis of a mean lunation of 29 days, 12 hours, 44 min., and 30 sec. Catholic Encyclopedia, New Moons in the Jewish Calendar. [www.New Advent.org: Catholic Encyclopedia Online. Search for Jewish Calendar. Scroll down under the section marked Month. Find that the Quote is the third sentence.]
“The first day of the lunar month was observed as a holy day. . . As on the Sabbath, trade and handicraft work were stopped (Amos 8:5; Ezekiel 46:3) and the temple was opened for public worship…. It was an occasion for state banquets (1 Samuel. 20:5-24). Smith’s Bible Dictionary (1884): New Moon.
The Roman eight-day week was known as internundinum tempus or the period between ninth-day affairs. (This term must be understood within the context of the ancient Roman mathematical practice of inclusive counting, whereby the first day of a cycle would also be counted as the last day of the preceding cycle. The ninth-day affair around which this week revolved was the nundin, a periodic market day that was held regularly every eight days. J. P. V. D. Balsdon, Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969), p. 59; P. Huvelin, Essai Historique sur le Droit des Marches et des Foires (Paris: Arthur Rousseau, 1897), p. 87; Ovid, Fasti (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1951), p. 6; Alan E. Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology (Munich: C. H. Beck’s che Verlagbuchhandlung, 1972), p. 154.
“James C. Vanderkam, and John A. O’Brien Professor of Hebrew Scriptures at the University of Notre Dame, have written extensively about the Dead Sea Scrolls community. Set up approximately 200 years prior to the birth of Jesus [Yahusha], the Qumran community split off from the mainstream population of Judea, because the community believed that the religious system at the time had become corrupted. One crucial conviction of Qumran, was that the religious system had corrupted the Jewish calendar, thereby corrupting all of the Jewish Sabbaths and Holy days. ibid (continued in the next two paragraphs)
In Vanderkam’s article, Calendrical Texts and the Origins of the Dead Sea Scroll Community, he reveals that the Qumran community followed a Jewish calendar, which is different then the calendar that Jews use today. More crucial to the paradox, he reveals that the Qumran community taught that the “full moon“ commenced the month, which would mean that Passover, which occurs mid-month, would have occurred when the moon was dark. Thus, if Passover was celebrated within ancient Judaism at the dark of the moon, rather than at the full of the moon, then it would be very possible for a total solar eclipse to occur, simultaneous to Passover and the Crucifixion of Jesus [Yahusha the Messiah]. ibid (continued in the next paragraph)
Note: Hillel II, the last president of the Sanhedrin, established the modern Jewish calendar, approximately 350 years after Jesus [Yahusha the Messiah]. Other arguments have been made as to why the Jewish calendar may have been corrupted as well.” Christianity Shrouded by Solar Eclipse, Examiner.com, William Doehring, May 19, 2012.
The Day Begins at Sunrise, and the Calendar Date Begins at Sunrise
On the subject of when the day begins, there has been for centuries much confusion over the use of the term “day.” No wonder there is so much muddle, as it has been interchangeably used in Scripture to denote both a period of 12 hours ruled by the sun, from sunrise to sunset; as well as the entire cycle of 12 hours plus four night watches.
Because Genesis 1:1-5 clarifies the original intention for the use of the term “day,” which is separated from the night. Therefore, the secondary use of the term “day” that refers to the 24 hour cycle of day followed by the night, in that order, we will characterize as a “24 hour civil calendar date.” A Day in Genesis
So while the day occurs first in a 24 hour calendar date, the only sacred qodesh portion of the Eternal Father’s set-apart days is from sunrise to sunset, entirely excluding the night. Sunrise or Sunset, When Does the Day Begin?
New evidence as presented on the Menorah (Leviticus 24:1-4) has caused TheCreatorsCalendar.com to reconsider when the “calendar date” actually commences. From the weight of evidence, we are constrained to believe that the 24 hour time continuum starts and stops at sunrise. While the changing of the lunar phases occurs at night, its purpose is to announce that the new calendar date commences at sunrise. Although the full moon is the only lunar phase that visibly rules from horizon to horizon, each successive phase continues to beacon from the shamayim its unique demarcation of calendar dates.
Remarkably the order of lunar phases commences in the east at sunset, and then night by night proceeds to the next phase, arriving at the dark conjunction lunar phase at mid lunar month. How can we know? Because according to the layout of the Temple, which faced east, the Menorah, the gold standard of the cosmic themes, stood regally in its real estate along the southern wall for over 1,500 years. Three branches arose to the east and three to the west. The Menorah was the first Orrery, a planetarium of time and beacon of prophetic fixed time cosmic themes. And just as the sun and stars arise in the east when they rule the shamayim (Genesis 1:16), so too does the moon. Simply no cycle of time commences its journey from the west except the dark conjunction lunar phase that sits in 14th or 15th position, and which is only following the natural progression of time that began fourteen/fifteen days previously, on the night of the full moon.
Speaking of the Greek and Romans
When hours were used, they were not of fixed length, but each 1/12 of the day, consequently varying with the season. Our hour is the hora equinoctials, 1/12 of the day or night at the equinox. Besides the natural reckoning of the day from dawn [sunrise], it was common in Greece to reckon it officially, for calendar purposes from sunset to sunset; the Romans reckoned from midnight. The Oxford Classic Dictionary., England: Clarendon Press. 1949. p. 909.
There are three principal uses of the term [day]: (a) The time of daylight, from sunrise to sunset, as contrasted to NIGHT. The day in this sense was divided into morning, noon and evening.” He carries on by saying, ” (b) The civil day, a space of twenty-four hours, extending from sunrise to sunrise or sunset to sunset.” And even later, ‘It would appear that the early Hebrews reckoned the civil day . . . from sunset to sunset . . . The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, by G.A. Buttrick, under DAY.
There only exists one time standard in the whole period covered by the Bible, i.e., the one taking the morning as the beginning of the day [daylight] . . . U. Cassuto, in his Commentary on Genesis 1, (English edition in 1961).
We must remember that in the Temple the day was reckoned according to the astro-lunar calendar. The Temple was opened during the day and closed during the night. The services began in the morning at sunrise and were finished at sunset. Thus, the “day” of the Temple consisted of only half a civil calendar day, i.e. from sunrise to sunset. Yet Aaron was commanded in Leviticus 24:3-4, to order the seven lamps of the Menorah from sunset to sunrise, representing the period of night when the moon and stars rule by measuring time and the sun is not present at all.
The sun alone indicated the hours for daily worship; at sunrise, when the day began, there was the morning sacrifice; at sunset, when the day closed, there was the evening sacrifice. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: “Astronomy” http://www.internationalstandardbible.com/A/astronomy-i.html
[Search for Astronomy, and then select Astronomy 1. Scroll down to Section 5: Seasons and then scroll down further to the second part. The Quote above is the first sentence in the paragraph.]
“In order to assure against profanation of the Sabbath the Jews added the late Friday afternoon hours to the Sabbath.” The Jewish Festivals: History and Observance, p. 13.
“If we look at the essentials of a day of rest and reflection, which has a religious orientation, it is possible to justify the shifting of the Sabbath worship to Friday evening [the celebration of which was moved back to the eve of the feast] as early as the Middle Ages . . .” Judaism: Between Yesterday and Tomorrow, Kung, p. 518.
“By cautioning the Colossian members not to let others judge them for how they observed the festivals, New Moon celebrations and Sabbaths, Paul didn’t question whether they should be kept. The obvious implication of these verses is that these Gentile Christians were in fact observing these days, and in no way did Paul tell them to desist. . . the festivals, New Moons, and Sabbaths, since the calendar governing those days was determined by movements of the heavenly bodies.” Sunset to Sunset: God’s Sabbath Rest,” p. 45.
Erroneous Evidence Passed Down by Uneducated Church Leaders
“Christians shall not Judaize and be idle on Saturday, but shall work on that day; but the Lord’s Day they shall especially honor, and, as being Christians, shall, if possible, do no work on that day. If however, they are found Judaizing, they shall be shut out from Christ.” [Falsified representation of the Council of Laodicea, Canon 29]
“Quod non oportet Christianos Judaizere et otiare in Sabbato, sed operari in eodem die. Preferentes autem in veneratione Dominicum Diem si vacre voluerint, ut Christiani hoc faciat; quod si reperti fuerint Judaizere Anathema sint a Christo.” Council of Laodicea, Canon 29
At the time the Julian calendar was being enforced upon Christians for religious purposes, no one confused the word Sabbato with dies Saturni. Simply everyone at that time knew these were names for two different days on two distinctly different calendar models. It is only as the facts of history have been forgotten, that “Saturday” has been assumed to be the seventh-day Sabbath of Scripture and of the Jews prior to the first century A.D. Therefore this historic quote from the Council of Laodicea, Canon 29, applies to astro-luni-solar time-keeping only and not to the Julian or Gregorian calendar, which keep the rhythm of the pagan’s premier unbroken cycling weeks.
Originally at creation, and passed down through the patriarchs and prophets, astro-luni-solar time-keeping was betrothed to mankind to synchronize earth with the worship rhythm of the shamayim (heavens). This was the only time-system consistently kept by the Hebrew people during their times of obedience.
“These . . . eventually led Jewish rabbis to call Saturn Shabbti, ‘the star of the Sabbath.’ It was not until the first century of our era, when the planetary week had become an established institution, that the Jewish Sabbath seems always to have corresponded to Saturn’s Day [Saturday].” Rest Days, Hutton Webster p.244.
“Early historical records clearly confirms that very early Gentile Christians also kept the same Sabbath as the Nazarenes [lunar Sabbato]. This practice was first changed by “[Pope] Sixtus in 126 AD, and later officially changed by a royal Roman decree from the emperor Constantine. Observance of the Sabbath [Sabbato] day was made illegal and observance of a “Sunday” of a fixed [cycling planetary designated] week was made mandatory for all except farmers. Previous to this time the Roman Saturday [dies Saturni] was the first day of the Roman week. The veneration of the Sun in the second century AD began to pressure Roman culture to change the first day of their week from Saturn Day to Sunday.” Shawui Sabbath: Ancient Sabbath Observance [Scroll down to section 7: The Christian Sabbath Observance in History . The Quote begins with the second sentence in this section.]
Josephus tells the story below of Mithridates, the Babylonian, who planned a surprise attack on Anileus, the Jew, during his Sabbath rest day. But when Anileus is informed of the surprise attack, he orchestrated his own attack during the fourth watch of the night prior to the sacred portion of the Sabbath daylight. If the Sabbath began at sunset he would not have been able to attack any time during that night. This illustrates that Josephus was well aware that the Jewish Sabbath commenced at sunrise for twelve hours and not sunset, as kept by the modern Jews.
“Now when Mithridates, who was there at this time, heard that his villages were taken, he was very much displeased to find that Anileus had first begun to injure him, and to affront him in his present dignity, when he had not offered any injury to him beforehand; and he got together the greatest body of horsemen he was able, and those out of that number which were of an age fit for war. and came to fight Anileus; and when he was arrived at a certain village of his own, he lay still there, as intending to fight him on the day following, because it was the Sabbath, the day on which the Jews rest. And when Anileus was informed of this by a Syrian stranger of another village, who not only gave him an exact account of other circumstances, but told him where Mithridates would have a feast, he took his supper at a proper time, and marched by night, with an intent of falling upon the Parthians while they were unapprized what they should do; so he fell upon them about the fourth watch of the night, and some of them he slew while they were asleep, and others he put to flight, and took Mithridates alive, and set him naked upon an ass, which among the Parthians is esteemed the greatest reproach possible.” The Works of Josephus, Vol. 2, Book XVIII, Chapter 9, p. 6. (Translated from original Greek, by Havercamp’s Accurate Edition.), J. Grigg Publishing, 1825.
From merely the historical perspective the Creator’s true “signs of the times” can be identified. The years begin in spring, instead of winter or fall. Each month is lunar and commences upon the full New Moon rather than the traditional crescent or newly interpreted dark conjunction lunar phases. The week was ordained by the Creator to be counted from one to seven, and cycle only four times each lunar month, following each New Moon day. The day was to commence at sunrise and last for twelve hours, and then followed by the night, which is divided not by hours, but by four watches. As a result, neither Friday, Saturday, nor Sunday can be the Creator’s true seventh-day Sabbath.
It is the confident expectation and prayer of the Creator’s Calendar Team that these quotes will stimulate your thoughts and actions to seek a deeper understanding of the truths of the Most High that have been proactively hidden by the enemy of souls.